American Revolution Institute

American Revolution Institute Promoting knowledge and appreciation of the achievement of American independence with library, museum, classroom and preservation programs. The American Revolution Institute uses social media to promote understanding and appreciation of the constructive accomplishments of the American Revolution, to build awareness of our work, and to invite public engagement with the issues that concern our organization.
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We encourage our fans and followers to post, comment, and interact with us and with others. We expect that remarks will be relevant to our posts and respectful of the views of others. We recognize that our ideas are not shared by everyone, and we don’t mind it when they say so, especially if they articulate the reasons they disagree. You can count on us to be civil. We insist on civility from othe

We encourage our fans and followers to post, comment, and interact with us and with others. We expect that remarks will be relevant to our posts and respectful of the views of others. We recognize that our ideas are not shared by everyone, and we don’t mind it when they say so, especially if they articulate the reasons they disagree. You can count on us to be civil. We insist on civility from othe

Operating as usual

How are you celebrating the second of July?Although most American celebrate our independence on July fourth, John Adams—...
07/02/2021
Virtual Concert – A Second of July Celebration - The American Revolution Institute

How are you celebrating the second of July?

Although most American celebrate our independence on July fourth, John Adams—the father of American independence if ever there was one—predicted that “the Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival.”

Today we honor President Adams' wishes and invite you to celebrate with us virtually with a concert performed by David and Ginger Hildebrand, co-founders of the Colonial Music Institute.

Follow this link to learn more and watch the concert, bit.ly/2ndofJulyConcert2021.

John Adams—the father of American independence if ever there was one—predicted that “the Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival.” The s...

What is your favorite patriotic song?David and Ginger Hildebrand of the Colonial Music Institute are back to perform ear...
06/03/2021

What is your favorite patriotic song?

David and Ginger Hildebrand of the Colonial Music Institute are back to perform early American music in celebration of the second of July, the day the Continental Congress adopted Richard Henry Lee’s resolution “that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States . . . and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.”

The performance, recorded at our headquarters Anderson House, will be released on July 2 on our website, http://bit.ly/2ndofJulyConcert2021. Stay tuned and mark your calendars!

What is your favorite patriotic song?

David and Ginger Hildebrand of the Colonial Music Institute are back to perform early American music in celebration of the second of July, the day the Continental Congress adopted Richard Henry Lee’s resolution “that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States . . . and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.”

The performance, recorded at our headquarters Anderson House, will be released on July 2 on our website, http://bit.ly/2ndofJulyConcert2021. Stay tuned and mark your calendars!

How much do you know about the Battle of Saratoga?Join us next week on Thursday, May 6 at 6:30 p.m. EST for a talk with ...
04/30/2021
Virtual Author's Talk - The Compleat Victory: Saratoga and the American Revolution - The American Revolution Institute

How much do you know about the Battle of Saratoga?

Join us next week on Thursday, May 6 at 6:30 p.m. EST for a talk with Kevin J. Weddle, retired U.S. Army colonel and Army War College professor, about his book on the Battle of Saratoga. In “The Compleat Victory: Saratoga and the American Revolution,” Weddle explains how British plans were undone by a combination of distance, geography, logistics, and an underestimation of American leadership and fighting ability. The book unravels the web of contingencies and the personalities that ultimately led to what one American general called “the Compleat Victory.”

To attend, please register on our website, https://bit.ly/3l5PMgC.

Following the successful expulsion of American forces from Canada in 1776, the British forces were determined to end the rebellion and devised what they believed a war-winning strategy. They were to send General John Burgoyne south to rout the Americans and take Albany. When British forces captured....

Ever wonder how the District of Columbia came to be? Join us on April 19 at 6:30 p.m. EST for a lecture with Robert P. W...
04/05/2021
Virtual Author's Talk - George Washington's Final Battle: The Epic Struggle to Build a Capital City and a Nation - The American Revolution Institute

Ever wonder how the District of Columbia came to be? Join us on April 19 at 6:30 p.m. EST for a lecture with Robert P. Watson, professor of American history at Lynn University, about his book on the role of George Washington in the creation of our national city. Washington imagined what he called the grand Columbian federal city (he didn't call it Washington, even after the commissioners for the federal district named the city in his honor) and he played a major part in planning the nation's capital. The city did not rise as fast as Washington hoped, but in time, as he expected, it became a symbol of the nation and a source of pride for its people. https://bit.ly/38xkiej

Robert P. Watson, professor of American history at Lynn University, discusses his book on the role of George Washington in the creation of the District of Columbia. The first president is remembered for leading the Continental Army to victory, presiding over the Constitutional Convention and forging...

Save the Date! We will be hosting Robert P. Watson on April 19 and Kevin J. Weddle on May 6. To attend these free virtua...
03/11/2021

Save the Date! We will be hosting Robert P. Watson on April 19 and Kevin J. Weddle on May 6. To attend these free virtual events, register online on our website http://bit.ly/38xkiej and http://bit.ly/3l5PMgC.

Save the Date! We will be hosting Robert P. Watson on April 19 and Kevin J. Weddle on May 6. To attend these free virtual events, register online on our website http://bit.ly/38xkiej and http://bit.ly/3l5PMgC.

TODAY at 6:30 p.m. EST Serena Zabin will discuss her book, "The Boston Massacre: A Family History," with our staff. Regi...
03/04/2021
Virtual Author's Talk - The Boston Massacre: A Family History - The American Revolution Institute

TODAY at 6:30 p.m. EST Serena Zabin will discuss her book, "The Boston Massacre: A Family History," with our staff. Register now to attend this online event. http://bit.ly/3rcBP2H

Serena Zabin, professor of history and director of the American studies program at Carleton College, discusses her book on the personal and political conflicts that erupted in the Boston Massacre. Following the British troops dispatched from Ireland to Boston in 1768 to suppress colonial unrest, Dr....

How will we understand the American Revolution in the future we are making?  In The People's Revolution, we argue that t...
03/04/2021
The People's Revolution - The American Revolution Institute

How will we understand the American Revolution in the future we are making?

In The People's Revolution, we argue that the American Revolution was a profound social and cultural transformation driven by the desire of ordinary people for personal independence.

https://www.americanrevolutioninstitute.org/the-peoples-revolution/

The American Revolution was a people's revolution, driven by the desire of ordinary Americans to achieve personal independence.

Register now for an Author’s Talk on Thursday, March 4 at 6:30 p.m. EST with Serena Zabin. Dr. Zabin will sit down with ...
03/02/2021
Virtual Author's Talk - The Boston Massacre: A Family History - The American Revolution Institute

Register now for an Author’s Talk on Thursday, March 4 at 6:30 p.m. EST with Serena Zabin. Dr. Zabin will sit down with Tour and Public Program Manager Kelsey Atwood to discuss the Boston Massacre, which occurred 251 years ago this week. http://bit.ly/3rcBP2

What questions do you have about the Boston Massacre?

Serena Zabin, professor of history and director of the American studies program at Carleton College, discusses her book on the personal and political conflicts that erupted in the Boston Massacre. Following the British troops dispatched from Ireland to Boston in 1768 to suppress colonial unrest, Dr....

TONIGHT at 6:30 p.m. EST Lindsay M. Chervinsky will be discussing her book "The Cabinet." Learn more and register  onlin...
02/24/2021
Virtual Author's Talk - The Cabinet: Washington and the Creation of an American Institution - The American Revolution Institute

TONIGHT at 6:30 p.m. EST Lindsay M. Chervinsky will be discussing her book "The Cabinet." Learn more and register online. https://bit.ly/2Nk2E5U

Lindsay M. Chervinsky discusses The Cabinet: Washington and the Creation of an American Institution, an examination of the extralegal creation of the president’s advisory body in response to the threats facing George Washington and the first administration. The book also demonstrates the importanc...

George Washington, born on this date in 1732, faced diplomatic crises, domestic insurrections, and constitutional challe...
02/22/2021

George Washington, born on this date in 1732, faced diplomatic crises, domestic insurrections, and constitutional challenges as the first President of the United States. To accomplish his important work, the President needed strong voices to give him counsel. Modeled after the councils of war he had led as commander of the Continental Army, Washington’s creation of cabinet had far reaching consequences.

Celebrate Washington’s birthday and learn about this chapter of his Presidency on Wednesday, February 24 at 6:30 EST.

To attend, please resister online. https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_qW2AM-kbRVqC1IDL7n-wqg

📷: Detail of “His Excellency Gen Washington” mezzotint. Charles Wilson Peale. 1778. The American Revolution Institute Collections.

George Washington, born on this date in 1732, faced diplomatic crises, domestic insurrections, and constitutional challenges as the first President of the United States. To accomplish his important work, the President needed strong voices to give him counsel. Modeled after the councils of war he had led as commander of the Continental Army, Washington’s creation of cabinet had far reaching consequences.

Celebrate Washington’s birthday and learn about this chapter of his Presidency on Wednesday, February 24 at 6:30 EST.

To attend, please resister online. https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_qW2AM-kbRVqC1IDL7n-wqg

📷: Detail of “His Excellency Gen Washington” mezzotint. Charles Wilson Peale. 1778. The American Revolution Institute Collections.

Join us on Wednesday, February 24 at 6:30 p.m. EST for a talk with Lindsay M. Chervinsky about "The Cabinet: Washington ...
02/11/2021

Join us on Wednesday, February 24 at 6:30 p.m. EST for a talk with Lindsay M. Chervinsky about "The Cabinet: Washington and the Creation of an American Institution," an examination of the extralegal creation of the president’s advisory body in response to the threats facing George Washington and the first administration. The book also demonstrates the importance of Washington’s military experience to the formation of the presidency and the federal government.

The talk will last approximately one hour on Zoom. Registration is required for this free event. https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_qW2AM-kbRVqC1IDL7n-wqg

Join us on Wednesday, February 24 at 6:30 p.m. EST for a talk with Lindsay M. Chervinsky about "The Cabinet: Washington and the Creation of an American Institution," an examination of the extralegal creation of the president’s advisory body in response to the threats facing George Washington and the first administration. The book also demonstrates the importance of Washington’s military experience to the formation of the presidency and the federal government.

The talk will last approximately one hour on Zoom. Registration is required for this free event. https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_qW2AM-kbRVqC1IDL7n-wqg

TONIGHT at 6:30 p.m., we will host a virtual Author’s Talk with Executive Director Jack Warren about the Institute’s new...
01/13/2021

TONIGHT at 6:30 p.m., we will host a virtual Author’s Talk with Executive Director Jack Warren about the Institute’s newest publication, “America’s First Veterans.” Join us to learn about the experiences of the men—and some women—who bore arms in the American Revolution. Register online to attend this talk.
https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_RayZ__wPS4-2-r8Xgf2b5A

TONIGHT at 6 p.m., we debut our new virtual tour of our headquarters, Anderson House, at our presentation during the vir...
01/09/2021

TONIGHT at 6 p.m., we debut our new virtual tour of our headquarters, Anderson House, at our presentation during the virtual Washington Winter Show. Join us live to be among the first to see the virtual tour and to participate in a Q&A with our curator.

Register online to join this and other free events of the show.
https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_VXdPJRTVRlu4mukCafcb1g

Happy New Year!One of the things we're looking forward to in 2021 is unveiling our new video, "Anderson House, home of t...
01/01/2021
Anderson House — Washington Winter Show®—The Washington Antiques Show®

Happy New Year!

One of the things we're looking forward to in 2021 is unveiling our new video, "Anderson House, home of the Society of the Cincinnati," during the Washington Winter Show. Watch live during our virtual presentation on Saturday, January 9 at 6 p.m.

https://www.washingtonwintershow.org/2021-events/anderson-house

with Emily Parsons, Deputy Director and Curator Free Event • Live with Q&A Register once for all free programming

Our unusual balance of scholarship, public service, and advocacy for popular understanding of the American Revolution is...
12/11/2020
Where to Learn About the Heroes of the American Revolution

Our unusual balance of scholarship, public service, and advocacy for popular understanding of the American Revolution is creating a movement. We welcome all who share our conviction that the American Revolution was a turning point in the history of freedom.

https://realclearwire.com/articles/2020/12/11/where_to_learn_about_the_heroes_of_the_american_revolution_652740.html

“The American Revolution was the central event in American history,” says American Revolution Institute Executive Director Jack Warren. “It defined our nation. Its achievements are t

One year ago we purchased one of the great American portraits: Samuel F.B. Morse's portrait of Thomas Pinckney—Revolutio...
11/27/2020
Portrait of Maj. Gen. Thomas Pinckney by Samuel F. B. Morse - The American Revolution Institute

One year ago we purchased one of the great American portraits: Samuel F.B. Morse's portrait of Thomas Pinckney—Revolutionary War hero, diplomat, presidential candidate, and president general of the Society of the Cincinnati. Now we are about to begin a major project to conserve and restore it to its original grandeur.
https://www.americanrevolutioninstitute.org/conservation/pinckney-portrait/

The oil portrait of Thomas Pinckney painted in 1818 by Samuel F. B. Morse began undergoing conservation treatment in March 2020.

John Trumbull's portrait of Bryan Rossiter presents us with a mystery. Why did the great artist, who made his living pai...
11/25/2020
The Fruit Seller's Portrait - The American Revolution Institute

John Trumbull's portrait of Bryan Rossiter presents us with a mystery. Why did the great artist, who made his living painting portraits and historical scenes, paint a portrait of a man who sold fruit in a New York City market?

https://www.americanrevolutioninstitute.org/the-fruit-sellers-portrait/

The fruit seller's portrait is an enigmatic painting by John Trumbull of Revolutionary War veteran Bryan Rossiter. This essay unwinds the mystery.

What should every student of the American Revolution know? This is our answer. Education is the heart of our mission. If...
11/20/2020
The American Revolution in One Lesson - The American Revolution Institute

What should every student of the American Revolution know? This is our answer. Education is the heart of our mission. If you care deeply about the ideals that define our nation, we ask that you share this post with your friends.
https://www.americanrevolutioninstitute.org/the-american-revolution-in-one-lesson

The American Revolution Institute Curriculum is based on the proposition that the American Revolution was the central, defining event in American history.

Okay, we admit that George Washington probably didn't stand up in a small boat to cross an ice-choked river in the middl...
11/19/2020
Ten Great Paintings of the American Revolution - The American Revolution Institute

Okay, we admit that George Washington probably didn't stand up in a small boat to cross an ice-choked river in the middle of the night, but paintings of the American Revolution by John Trumbull, Emanuel Leutze, Asher Durand, and other nineteenth century artists shape the way we think about the American Revolution more than we know. Take a few minutes to explore them in our new installment of Treasures of the American Revolution.
https://www.americanrevolutioninstitute.org/treasures-of-the-american-revolution/ten-great-american-revolution-paintings

These ten American Revolution paintings reflected and shaped the way Americans understood the ir history in the first half of the nineteenth century.

This Veterans Day, take a moment to reflect on America's first veterans—ordinary people who risked everything in a war a...
11/10/2020
Our First Veterans - The American Revolution Institute

This Veterans Day, take a moment to reflect on America's first veterans—ordinary people who risked everything in a war against one of the world's great powers to win their independence and establish the first great republic in modern history. Never doubt that a small group of committed people can change the world.
https://www.americanrevolutioninstitute.org/first-veterans/

We are heirs to the American Revolution and the free society it created. That free society is the legacy of America’s first veterans.

Yes, the Revolutionary War was really this scary!  Who knew? Give your friends a special treat today—repost this message...
10/31/2020
Subscribe - The American Revolution Institute

Yes, the Revolutionary War was really this scary! Who knew? Give your friends a special treat today—repost this message and invite them to join us. It's free (no trick . . . it really is!). HAPPY HALLOWEEN FROM THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION INSTITUTE!

https://www.americanrevolutioninstitute.org/join-our-mailing-list/

Sign up here to become a part of our movement to promote understanding and appreciation of the American Revolution. You’ll receive regular program notices, news and updates on our blogs and other publications. * indicates required field   Which of the following interest you? Advocating for effect...

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More 'dislike' towards HMAR; "Calling Unzaga and Galvez Co-Founders of the US is like calling Joseph Stalin the great protector of the United States during WWII." ~Michael Troy American Revolution Podcast
Galvez was the Supreme Commander of both Spanish and French forces in North America! Hispanic Museum of the American Revolution
First visit yesterday. Since it was in Mid-Afternoon we could only afford a 2 hour stay. 5 out of 5 Stars! We will return many times and follow your activity. So much to learn there. The Presenter for the tent presentation asked the Audience of mostly youngsters asked "how long will America last"? I do not recall anyone giving an answer. On the way out I told him "as long as men want to live in Freedom is the answer".
For Memorial Day, the tale of an American warrior who wouldn't quit-- “An American Hero and the Art of the Comeback” History is replete with examples of movements and leaders who’ve been written off, only to storm back to great triumphs. Abraham Lincoln lost a vote to be vice president, lost a US Senate race, lost a race to be a congressman, even lost an election for state assemblyman. But he came back and won those two other elections… Ronald Reagan narrowly lost the Republican nomination for president in 1976, to Gerald Ford. And, as everyone knows, he was then too old to make another bid for the White House. And today, everyone remembers Reagan more than Jerry Ford. In 1938, Winston Churchill was 64 years old, a washed-up politician, a lonely voice crying in the wilderness about the threats to his nation. In 1951, after being perhaps the pivotal figure in winning the largest war ever fought, he again became British Prime Minister, at age 76. So anyone who’s suffered a bruising defeat is wise to look at the examples in history, of those who suffered terrible losses, time and time again, but who wouldn’t quit, and who over time came out victorious. Let’s look at just one such example in our own nation’s history. You probably have never heard of him. A fellow by the name of John Paul. No, not the late Pope. But a humble Scotchman, the son of a gardener born, in 1747, near the Scottish shore. As a boy, he stared across the sea, at America, dreaming of limitless possibilities. He started out at sea, at the age of thirteen, from the English port of Whitehaven, working as a shipman’s apprentice. By age 19 he was second mate and, when the captain and first mate died from yellow fever, took command and brought his ship safely home all the way from Jamaica to Scotland. He sailed on the “triangle trade,” of sugar, slaves, and rum, between Britain, the Caribbean, and Africa. But he hated the slave trade, and gave up a stack of profits to move on to less savage forms of sea-borne commerce. He ran into big trouble on his next voyages. The ships of the time—a time of the real-life Munity on the Bounty--were notorious for revolts among the crews, and for harsh discipline from their commanders. In 1770 John Paul flogged a crewman for misbehavior, and the crewman died. John Paul was himself jailed for “unnecessarily cruel” punishment over the incident, then released. Three years later, in Tobago, his crew mutinied, and to put it down he killed one of his men with his cutlass. Charges of misconduct were brought against him, and to escape the brig he fled to America, leaving behind all his money. He traveled to the home of his older brother who had settled just down the road from here, in Fredericksburg, Virginia. To an America that was just starting its revolt against Britain, was just starting to form a Navy, and which was in dire need of experienced mariners, this man was a godsend. Influential figures like Virginia’s Richard Henry Lee, and John Adams of Massachusetts, helped him get his posting, as First Lieutenant of the converted frigate the Alfred. In February 1776, the Alfred became the first American warship to unfurl an American flag. The Continental Congress was outfitting merchant ships as warships, and John Paul, Jones--as he now called himself--took command of one called the Providence. In one voyage, his single ship captured sixteen British ships. One of his victories had a large and unexpected consequence. In 1776 he captured a British ship bearing a consignment of winter uniforms for the British commander in Canada, Gen. Burgoyne. “Gentleman Johnny”, as he was known, was especially peeved to have stylish garments of the season taken out his hands. The clothing was put to good use, and worn by the men of Washington’s army. An army that, by the late fall of 1776, was beaten, and without any hope of victory. An army whose men put on those very same warm winter clothes before they crossed the Delaware on the frigid Christmas Eve night of 1776, en route to their shocking comeback victories at Princeton and Trenton. Jones next sailed across to Europe, and stayed for a time in France. There he became close friends with America’s first, and perhaps greatest, diplomat, Ben Franklin. Franklin was in Paris on an impossible mission. To persuade the French, who were nearly bankrupt from the French and Indian Wars against the Americans, to bankrupt themselves by taking the side of the Americans in this new war. Against all odds, and with the help of John Adams and later Thomas Jefferson—the greatest diplomatic team, surely, ever assembled—Franklin succeeded. And John Paul Jones succeeded in persuading the French on a smart naval strategy—to boldly put their fleet between Britain and the American coasts, cutting the British army off from its bases in Canada and Britain. In time this aggressive, “in harm’s way” approach ensured victory for the Americans at Yorktown. (By the way, the term “in harm’s way,” now indelibly linked with the U.S. Navy, was coined by Jones.) The Raid on Whitehaven In 1778, Capt. Jones shocked the British Empire by taking the war to its own home soil, by launching a sea-borne raid on the English port city of Whitehaven. The raid was daring, and drew on the naval strategy of England’s greatest sailor up to that time, Sir Francis Drake. Back in the 1580s, Drake had delayed the planned invasion of England by the Spanish Armada with a preemptive strike. He sailed into the Spanish harbor of Cadiz, where part of the Armada was assembling, and sent boats lit on fire into the Spanish fleet, setting many ships ablaze. John Paul Jones tried to do something similar at Whitehaven, to a flotilla of 300 English ships laying there at anchor. Unfortunately, as often happened with John Paul Jones, many things went wrong, as he led a raiding party of 30 men and two boats toward the English harbor side town. The winds shifted against them, and the tide shifted too, slowing their approach. The lanterns they brought to light the fires ran out of fuel. Then some of the sailors Jones sent onshore to gather fuel from a tavern stayed to drink at the bar! Just one British ship was burned, and no prisoners were taken. But five days later John Paul Jones encountered a British man of war, called, ironically, the HMS Drake. After a fierce battle, he captured it. The British were shaken to their core by the brazen Whitehaven and HMS Drake attacks. They were forced to divert men and ships away from America to defend their own coasts. Jones’s greatest triumph, at first seemingly a great defeat, came in 1779. He was commanding a converted, 40-gun French merchant ship, a gift to America from a French merchant. Jones rechristened the ship the Bon Homme Richard, a loose translation of “Poor Richard”, as in Ben Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac, the ship being named after Jones’ friend Ben Franklin. He and his five-ship fleet caused panic off of England’s coast. To restore order, the powerful British warship the Serapis sailed to meet Jones and the Bon Homme Richard. John Paul Jones’s luck was mostly bad throughout the ensuing battle. The captain of the second-largest ship in his fleet refused to obey Jones’s orders. The captain of an accompanying privateer fled from the scene. For two hours the Bon Homme Richard and the Serapis exchanged broadsides. The Bon Homme Richard got the worst of it. In the confusion, one of the ships in Jones’s fleet also mistakenly raked over Jones’ ship--several times. The British commander, seeing the damage to Jones’ ship, called out for him to surrender. According to Jones’ lieutenant, the American captain famously replied: “I have not yet begun to fight!” Badly outgunned, he decided his only chance was to close on the Serapis, and turn the fight into a close-in brawl. He succeeded in ramming the British ship. But the Bon Homme Richard was on fire, and sinking, and its flag was shot away. This made the British captain think the ship had struck its colors, and he shouted out to Jones if he was finally ready to give up. Jones shouted back another defiant cry: "I may sink, but I'll be damned if I strike my colors!" Then the tide turned some. The British tried to board the ship, but were repulsed. The U.S. Marine marksmen in the rigging and the deck guns took a toll on the British. And for once Jones got lucky. A Marine up in the sails tossed a gr***de onto the deck of the Serapis, which dropped into the ship’s hold, and exploded next to its supply of gunpowder. The British ship was badly damaged, and now its commander decided to surrender. But the Bon Homme Richard was about to sink, so John Paul Jones transferred his command to the Serapis. He had won his nation’s first great naval victory on the high seas, just as his own ship was about to sink. Now, that’s a comeback to admire! Jones took the Serapis and another captured British ship into a harbor in Holland. He gained world-wide renown for his feat. At this point, Jones’ sometimes vain and selfish personality came to the fore. After the battle, he court-martialed his second-in-command, who was later released. According to John Adams, who looked into the matter, Jones wanted his lieutenant out of the way so he could bask in all the glory for his victory over the Serapis. After his stirring triumph, came bitter disappointment in his career. He was supposed to be appointed captain of the nation’s most powerful capital ship, the 74-gun USS America. But to reward our ally France, congress gave the ship to the French navy instead. With the end of the American Revolution, Jones again met defeat. He urged congress to continue funding the U.S. Navy as a deterrent to war, but congress declined, and the Navy was disbanded, only to be later resurrected at great expense by President Adams. With no U.S. Navy to serve under, he traveled to Russia in 1788, and became an admiral in the Russian fleet, fighting with distinction against the Turkish Empire along the Black Sea. But two Russian princes, jealous of his success, conspired against him, and framed him with charges he’d r***d a young woman. Jones proved to Tsarina Catherine the Great’s court that the charges were false, and was awarded a medal for his military service. But he soon left Russia angry and bitter at his mistreatment. John Paul Jones lost, then won, in death as well as in life. He settled in France, where he died, in 1792, at age 45, from kidney disease. A few friends and servants buried him at the wonderfully named, “St. Louis Cemetery for Alien Protestants.” During the French Revolution the graveyard was abandoned--it became a place where gamblers placed bets on fights between animals. However a French admirer had arranged for Jones’ body to be preserved in alcohol, and within a lead coffin: "in the event that should the United States decide to claim his remains, they might more easily be identified." A century later, the United States decided to do right by its great naval hero. Starting in 1899, Ambassador to France Horace Porter tracked down Jones’ remains. This was one year after the Spanish-American War, of 1898, where the U.S. Navy, for the first time a world power, had won an overwhelming victory against the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. A newly confident America was eager to celebrate the triumphs of its first naval commanders. Ambassador Porter spent six years looking for Jones. He used sounding probes to find the lead coffin. An autopsy confirmed the preserved body as that of Jones. In spring 1906, seven U.S. Navy battleships escorted the cruiser the USS Brooklyn, carrying Jones’ coffin, back to the United States, and to the US Naval Academy in Annapolis. Today, the father of the United States Navy lies in state, in a magnificent bronze and marble sarcophagus at the Naval Academy chapel. If you’ve never seen the tomb, just a 35-mile drive from here, you should. Its grandeur reminds the visitor of Napoleon’s Tomb in Paris. In his life, and death, John Paul Jones had to persevere against countless obstacles and setbacks. But in the end he won out, giving hope to countless Americans in his day, and providing inspiration today. Copyright © 2021 by Edward P. Moser Ed’s book A to Z of America: https://www.amazon.com/Patriots-America-Things-American-Should/dp/1596525495 Ed’s latest book, the White House’s Unruly Neighborhood: https://www.amazon.com/White-Houses-Unruly-Neighborhood-Lafayette/dp/1476674868/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1555118270&sr=1-1-catcorr