National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Sciences A society of distinguished scientists. Advisors to federal government promote understanding of science through meetings, symposia, and our journal, PNAS.
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The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private, nonprofit organization of the country’s leading researchers. The NAS recognizes and promotes outstanding science through election to membership; publication in its journal, PNAS; and its awards, programs, and special activities. Through the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the NAS provides objective, science-based advice on critical issues affecting the nation.

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private, nonprofit organization of the country’s leading researchers. The NAS recognizes and promotes outstanding science through election to membership; publication in its journal, PNAS; and its awards, programs, and special activities. Through the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the NAS provides objective, science-based advice on critical issues affecting the nation.

Operating as usual

“Science is our best tool to ascertain...the origins of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, which could help prevent future pandemi...
06/16/2021

“Science is our best tool to ascertain...the origins of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, which could help prevent future pandemics.” In a statement, the presidents of the National Academies urge that scientific evidence should determine the cause of SARS-CoV-2.

Read more: http://ow.ly/zOiB50FbUZI

“Science is our best tool to ascertain...the origins of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, which could help prevent future pandemics.” In a statement, the presidents of the National Academies urge that scientific evidence should determine the cause of SARS-CoV-2.

Read more: http://ow.ly/zOiB50FbUZI

06/08/2021

Previous John J. Carty Award winner Joseph DeRisi of UCSF and the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub used his extensive knowledge of genomic sequencing technologies to help scale up COVID-19 testing during the pandemic.

Read more about DeRisi’s work and the John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science: http://ow.ly/pDV450F5O4W

During Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, we celebrate AAPI communities and their contributions to Amer...
05/18/2021

During Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, we celebrate AAPI communities and their contributions to American society, including in the fields of science, engineering and medicine.

Learn more about our work on advancing equity and inclusion, from raising awareness of racial inequities to spurring action on a range of issues, here: http://ow.ly/zSWZ50EPOst

During Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, we celebrate AAPI communities and their contributions to American society, including in the fields of science, engineering and medicine.

Learn more about our work on advancing equity and inclusion, from raising awareness of racial inequities to spurring action on a range of issues, here: http://ow.ly/zSWZ50EPOst

How can higher education institutions best respond to rising rates of depression, anxiety, substance use, and other ment...
05/18/2021
Alan Leshner, AAAS CEO Emeritus and NASEM Committee Chair

How can higher education institutions best respond to rising rates of depression, anxiety, substance use, and other mental health problems among college students?

Alan Leshner, committee chair behind our report on mental health, substance abuse, and wellbeing in higher education, spoke about the findings of the report and how institutions of higher education can best provide mental health and wellness services to students.

Watch the full video here: http://ow.ly/PWyP50EPOr3

Alan Leshner, chair of the Committee on Mental Health, Substance Use, and Wellbeing in STEMM Undergraduate and Graduate Education, speaks about the National ...

Nominations are now being accepted for the 2022 NAS awards. Awards will be presented in a variety of fields including in...
05/12/2021

Nominations are now being accepted for the 2022 NAS awards. Awards will be presented in a variety of fields including infectious diseases, mathematics, neurosciences, astronomy, and more.

Please help spread the word that the nomination process is underway! More information, including nomination instructions, eligibility requirements, and more can be found here: http://ow.ly/LaxI50ELaly

Nominations are now being accepted for the 2022 NAS awards. Awards will be presented in a variety of fields including infectious diseases, mathematics, neurosciences, astronomy, and more.

Please help spread the word that the nomination process is underway! More information, including nomination instructions, eligibility requirements, and more can be found here: http://ow.ly/LaxI50ELaly

05/03/2021

Approaching world problems with a focus on their intersections with racial inequities is vital to ensure our responses are inclusive and equitable.

Learn about our work on diversity, equity and inclusion: http://ow.ly/gQOG50EDN02

Earlier this month, The Pew Charitable Trusts hosted an online discussion about how to build trust in science, and how t...
05/03/2021

Earlier this month, The Pew Charitable Trusts hosted an online discussion about how to build trust in science, and how the pandemic can provide lessons to change the practice of science for the better.

Watch NAS President Marcia McNutt’s remarks: http://ow.ly/U3b750EDKl9

Earlier this month, The Pew Charitable Trusts hosted an online discussion about how to build trust in science, and how the pandemic can provide lessons to change the practice of science for the better.

Watch NAS President Marcia McNutt’s remarks: http://ow.ly/U3b750EDKl9

Today we welcome 120 newly elected members — 59 of whom are women, the most elected in a single year. “The historic numb...
04/27/2021

Today we welcome 120 newly elected members — 59 of whom are women, the most elected in a single year.

“The historic number of women elected this year reflects the critical contributions that they are making in many fields of science, as well as a concerted effort by our Academy to recognize those contributions and the essential value of increasing diversity in our ranks,” said National Academy of Sciences President Marcia McNutt. “I am pleased to welcome all of our new members, and I look forward to engaging with them in the work of the National Academies.”

Join us in congratulating our new members on their outstanding achievements in original research.

Read more: http://ow.ly/xyn250EyksQ

Today we welcome 120 newly elected members — 59 of whom are women, the most elected in a single year.

“The historic number of women elected this year reflects the critical contributions that they are making in many fields of science, as well as a concerted effort by our Academy to recognize those contributions and the essential value of increasing diversity in our ranks,” said National Academy of Sciences President Marcia McNutt. “I am pleased to welcome all of our new members, and I look forward to engaging with them in the work of the National Academies.”

Join us in congratulating our new members on their outstanding achievements in original research.

Read more: http://ow.ly/xyn250EyksQ

04/25/2021
Climate Change | The National Academies

As we take the steps to address the pressing issue of the climate crisis around the world, the National Academies are advising the nation with a broad portfolio of responses to combat the effects of climate change.

Watch sessions from #NAS158: http://ow.ly/wFoj50Eyl38

How are racism and bias affecting the educational and career paths of Black men and women in science, engineering, and m...
04/19/2021

How are racism and bias affecting the educational and career paths of Black men and women in science, engineering, and medicine?

Read about the National Academies’ workshop last spring, which explored ways to increase the participation of Black men and women in these career pathways: http://ow.ly/EljR50Er9N9

How are racism and bias affecting the educational and career paths of Black men and women in science, engineering, and medicine?

Read about the National Academies’ workshop last spring, which explored ways to increase the participation of Black men and women in these career pathways: http://ow.ly/EljR50Er9N9

As rising global temperatures threaten the future of our planet, now is the time to demonstrate leadership and commit to...
04/18/2021

As rising global temperatures threaten the future of our planet, now is the time to demonstrate leadership and commit to drive forward mitigation of and adaptation to climate change.

In a new statement, science academies from the G-7 nations including the NAS call for their governments to develop an evidence-based technology road map to net-zero emissions that is informed and continuously updated by bringing together scientists, economists, and social and behavioral scientists.

The academies also push for an accelerated pace of change by increasing public and private sector investment in the key research and development challenges on the road to net-zero and effective adaptation.

Read more: http://ow.ly/I3H050Er9Mq

As rising global temperatures threaten the future of our planet, now is the time to demonstrate leadership and commit to drive forward mitigation of and adaptation to climate change.

In a new statement, science academies from the G-7 nations including the NAS call for their governments to develop an evidence-based technology road map to net-zero emissions that is informed and continuously updated by bringing together scientists, economists, and social and behavioral scientists.

The academies also push for an accelerated pace of change by increasing public and private sector investment in the key research and development challenges on the road to net-zero and effective adaptation.

Read more: http://ow.ly/I3H050Er9Mq

Scientists and journalists start from different places, but they share a commitment to accuracy and information. Find pr...
04/18/2021

Scientists and journalists start from different places, but they share a commitment to accuracy and information. Find practical advice for scientists looking to engage the media in a new digital resource from the National Academies.

Access the resources here: http://ow.ly/skHe50Er9LE

Scientists and journalists start from different places, but they share a commitment to accuracy and information. Find practical advice for scientists looking to engage the media in a new digital resource from the National Academies.

Access the resources here: http://ow.ly/skHe50Er9LE

Even before the onset of COVID-19, many clinicians faced pervasive issues with burnout and related mental health problem...
04/17/2021

Even before the onset of COVID-19, many clinicians faced pervasive issues with burnout and related mental health problems as a part of their professions.

The National Academy of Medicine’s Action Collaborative on Clinician Well-Being and Resilience has put together a list of resources with information on how to combat burnout and protect the mental health of clinicians during public health emergencies including the COVID-19 pandemic.

Access the resources here: http://ow.ly/ZyNp50Er9Lf

Even before the onset of COVID-19, many clinicians faced pervasive issues with burnout and related mental health problems as a part of their professions.

The National Academy of Medicine’s Action Collaborative on Clinician Well-Being and Resilience has put together a list of resources with information on how to combat burnout and protect the mental health of clinicians during public health emergencies including the COVID-19 pandemic.

Access the resources here: http://ow.ly/ZyNp50Er9Lf

04/17/2021

Don’t miss our symposium on the response to the COVID-19 pandemic and its lessons for the future during the 158th NAS Annual Meeting. Panels will include presentations from Caitlin Rivers, Nicole Lurie, Barney S. Graham, Janet Napolitano, and more.

Register now for the April 24th session, 12:30 - 5:00 pm ET: http://ow.ly/nC6Q50Er9ER

As the United States and other countries respond to the outbreak of respiratory illness caused by the COVID-19 infectiou...
04/16/2021

As the United States and other countries respond to the outbreak of respiratory illness caused by the COVID-19 infectious disease, it is critical that science-based information guide public health strategies. Our publications provide guidance as we grapple with this crisis.

View our resource collection:
http://ow.ly/PaMB50EqJeD

As the United States and other countries respond to the outbreak of respiratory illness caused by the COVID-19 infectious disease, it is critical that science-based information guide public health strategies. Our publications provide guidance as we grapple with this crisis.

View our resource collection:
http://ow.ly/PaMB50EqJeD

04/16/2021

Don't miss our annual awards ceremony on April 25th! We will honor the major contributions made by 23 researchers to the physical, biological, and social sciences, including an address by 2021 Public Welfare Medalist Anthony S. Fauci.

Register now: http://ow.ly/IUvR50EqJcw

The magnitude of biodiversity decline on our planet requires urgent action to halt and reverse this trend. In a new stat...
04/14/2021

The magnitude of biodiversity decline on our planet requires urgent action to halt and reverse this trend. In a new statement, science academies from the G-7 nations including the National Academy of Sciences recommended that their governments take urgent action to reverse global declines in biodiversity and work together to raise the ambition to halt and start to reverse biodiversity loss by 2030.

The statement calls for new approaches to valuing and accounting for biodiversity, in ways that can be integrated into all forms of decision-making, including national economic policy, and in in ways that reduce economic, social, and health inequalities associated with the impacts of biodiversity loss.

Read more: http://ow.ly/a2fj50EnKER

The magnitude of biodiversity decline on our planet requires urgent action to halt and reverse this trend. In a new statement, science academies from the G-7 nations including the National Academy of Sciences recommended that their governments take urgent action to reverse global declines in biodiversity and work together to raise the ambition to halt and start to reverse biodiversity loss by 2030.

The statement calls for new approaches to valuing and accounting for biodiversity, in ways that can be integrated into all forms of decision-making, including national economic policy, and in in ways that reduce economic, social, and health inequalities associated with the impacts of biodiversity loss.

Read more: http://ow.ly/a2fj50EnKER

Given the urgency of the risks posed by climate change, the U.S. should create a research program for solar geoengineeri...
04/13/2021
New Report Says U.S. Should Cautiously Pursue Solar Geoengineering Research to Better Understand Options for Responding to Climate Change Risks

Given the urgency of the risks posed by climate change, the U.S. should create a research program for solar geoengineering.

Solar geoengineering refers to strategies designed to cool Earth either by adding small reflective particles to the upper atmosphere, increasing reflective cloud cover in the lower atmosphere, or thinning high-altitude clouds that can absorb heat. While not a substitute for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, it could be an important part of a robust portfolio of climate mitigation and adaptation policies.

Read more about the recommendations made in our new report, Reflecting Sunlight: Recommendations for Solar Geoengineering Research and Research Governance: http://ow.ly/BYey50EnKBR

Given the urgency of the risks posed by climate change, the U.S. should pursue a research program for solar geoengineering — in coordination with other nations, subject to governance, and alongside a robust portfolio of climate mitigation and adaptation policies, says a new report from the Nationa...

Join us for a presidential address by Marcia McNutt, a symposium that will focus on the response to the COVID-19 pandemi...
04/08/2021
NAS 158th Annual Meeting

Join us for a presidential address by Marcia McNutt, a symposium that will focus on the response to the COVID-19 pandemic and its lessons for the future, an awards ceremony honoring the work of researchers across a diverse range of fields, and more during the public live stream of our 158th Annual Meeting.

Register now for the free live streamed sessions: http://ow.ly/ffHd50Ek8fH

NAS 158th Annual Meeting

How can higher education institutions best respond to rising rates of depression, anxiety, substance use, and other ment...
04/07/2021
Alan Leshner, AAAS CEO Emeritus and NASEM Committee Chair

How can higher education institutions best respond to rising rates of depression, anxiety, substance use, and other mental health problems among college students?
Alan Leshner, committee chair behind our report on mental health, substance abuse, and wellbeing in higher education, spoke about the findings of the report and how institutions of higher education can best provide mental health and wellness services to students.

Watch here: http://ow.ly/7Wtx50EfA7h

Alan Leshner, chair of the Committee on Mental Health, Substance Use, and Wellbeing in STEMM Undergraduate and Graduate Education, speaks about the National ...

To move toward a resilient and sustainable electric grid for the U.S., we must improve our understanding of how the syst...
04/06/2021

To move toward a resilient and sustainable electric grid for the U.S., we must improve our understanding of how the system is evolving and facilitate innovation in technology, policy, and business models.

Our new report, The Future of Electric Power in the United States, provides recommendations for improving the U.S. electric power system including the need for accelerating innovations in technology in light of shifting global supply chains and the influx of disruptive technologies.
Read more about the report here: http://ow.ly/cbUY50EfA6a

To move toward a resilient and sustainable electric grid for the U.S., we must improve our understanding of how the system is evolving and facilitate innovation in technology, policy, and business models.

Our new report, The Future of Electric Power in the United States, provides recommendations for improving the U.S. electric power system including the need for accelerating innovations in technology in light of shifting global supply chains and the influx of disruptive technologies.
Read more about the report here: http://ow.ly/cbUY50EfA6a

04/05/2021

The first Nobel Prize Summit on April 26-28 will bring together Nobel laureates and other esteemed leaders in the sciences, policy, business, the arts, and the youth movement to explore the question: What can be achieved in this decade to put the world on a path to a more sustainable, more prosperous future for all of humanity?

The virtual event will feature keynotes and discussions on topics that will include climate change and biodiversity loss, increasing inequality, and technological innovation in support of societal goals.

Register now: http://ow.ly/vd4j50Eh4jV

While Black people make up 13 percent of the U.S. population, they represent less than 7 percent of medical students and...
04/05/2021

While Black people make up 13 percent of the U.S. population, they represent less than 7 percent of medical students and less than 3 percent of practicing physicians. And Black men and women account for only 4.8 percent of professionals employed in the science and engineering disciplines.

The National Academies’ Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine is investigating the factors driving disparities in STEM — and examining the barriers that Black Americans face as they navigate the pathways from K-12 and postsecondary education to careers in science, engineering, and medicine. “Through its action groups — which focus on additional areas such as public engagement, mentoring, and education — the roundtable has created a landscape for meaningful change.” said Cato T. Laurencin, chair of the roundtable, and University Professor and Van Dusen Distinguished Professor at the University of Connecticut.

Read more about the National Academies ongoing work to address racial inequity across society: http://ow.ly/S2xL50EfA51

While Black people make up 13 percent of the U.S. population, they represent less than 7 percent of medical students and less than 3 percent of practicing physicians. And Black men and women account for only 4.8 percent of professionals employed in the science and engineering disciplines.

The National Academies’ Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine is investigating the factors driving disparities in STEM — and examining the barriers that Black Americans face as they navigate the pathways from K-12 and postsecondary education to careers in science, engineering, and medicine. “Through its action groups — which focus on additional areas such as public engagement, mentoring, and education — the roundtable has created a landscape for meaningful change.” said Cato T. Laurencin, chair of the roundtable, and University Professor and Van Dusen Distinguished Professor at the University of Connecticut.

Read more about the National Academies ongoing work to address racial inequity across society: http://ow.ly/S2xL50EfA51

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Moon 2100 miles, Mercury 3100 miles, Mars 4200 miles diameter, so discovery is 1000 miles difference between Moon Mercury and Mars. Second discovery is that Mercury is closer to Earth than Venus is to Earth at times, so we can see ordering of planets as mixed up where Earth can be seen as the second planet from the Sun at times. (See the more detailed work of Tom Huntsman a doctoral candidate at University of Alabama in a Physics Today discussion) Third discovery is that the asteroid belt may be the remnant of a planetary collision at 200 million miles. Fourth discovery is a combined gravitational force and electrostatic force equation F=kGMMQQ/r2 d2 equation combining Coulomb's law with Newton's gravitational law. A social science discovery is that Trump and Biden tied in the election using the Amendment 12 discussion of counting each state as one vote as Biden and Trump each got 25 states' votes. Ties do not need to be broken. Biden got 81 million divided by 239 million votes eligible voters or 33% of the popular vote which is not a majority. Trump got 31% of the eligible votes not a majority. Arguably 2020 was a tie explaining the degree of conflict! James T. Struck BA, BS, AA, MLIS PO BOX 61 Evanston IL 60204
Regarding Covid 19. The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) in the Philippines is, according to a post copied here, currently doing trials to see how effective VCO is in combating the covid 19 virus, but have noted promising results. VCO is natural and totally safe. It is avaliable to most people at a local market under a common name. Please read, about 69 hospital patients and a number of jail workers treated with VCO. These were not clinical studies but just a treatment which provided promising data. Studies have proven that VCO has antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. Read on as. later in this post, you will see the promising results of those treated with VCO and just what VCO is. It at least appears it may possibly help protect one from the virus. Being a Navy Veteran of the Vietnam war it appears to me this could very well help shipboard virus problems. Later working in a hospital setting I also belive it is a shame it is not being widely tried in that setting. Everybody should possibly be using this. Please read the following post. Copy and paste or forward to whoever needs to see it. - - - - Covid 19 is a lipid (fat) encapsulated virus. This natural substance when made available in the body, migrates to and is absorbed into the lipid encasement destabilizing it and thus destroying many viruses and other similar microorganisms. This process is effective even against supergerms resistant to antibiotics. MCFAs (medium chain fatty acids) such as Lauric Acid (C-12), Capric Acid (C-10), Caprylic Acid (C-8), and the monoglycerides of these MCFAs such as monolaurin, monocapry and monocaprin are known to be highly antimicrobial and this is one way it may be done. All that were mentioned here are involved in what follows. Please read - - - -It looks like there is a distinct possibility protection and possibly a cure for Covid 19 may be avaliable. Governments around the world should be promoting this. --- Ongoing trials by DOST reveal virgin coconut oil’s promising results on treating, managing COVID Virgin coconut oil can possibly help prevent, manage and treat COVID-19 patients, research says. ANCX | Aug 03 2020 The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) is currently doing trials to see how effective VCO is in combatting the COVID-19 virus, but have noted promising results. As trials for coronavirus vaccines are still underway, we are left with no choice but to simply wait and do the necessary safety precautions—wear a mask and a face shield, wash our hands thoroughly, and observe physical distancing. But what if we add another to-do? According to Dr. Fabian M. Dayrit, president of the Integrated Chemists of the Philippines, we’ve got something locally available that can help prevent, manage, and treat novel coronavirus patients—virgin coconut oil (VCO). The doctor has been doing his studies on coconut oil for over 15 years. “There are two general strategies against viral diseases. First, to develop drugs which are directly antiviral, and second, to use the body’s own immune system to defend [itself] against the virus,” noted a research by Dr. Dayrit and Dr. Mary T. Newport, a neonatologist, international speaker, and an advocate for using coconut oil. According to Dr. Dayrit, there are enough studies to prove that VCO has antiviral and immunomodulatory properties. Upon ingestion, coconut oil produces lauric acid and monolaurin, two compounds which have been known for many years to have significant antiviral activity. Dr. Jose Mondejar, medical director Equilibrium Integrative Health Clinic, who had reached out to Dr. Dayrit regarding his VCO studies, gave the oil to 69 residents of Sitio Luz, Barangay Zapatera. They were among the first COVID-19 patients of Cebu City in April. They initially took 1 tablespoon of VCO twice a day, which later increased to thrice a day, he said in an interview with DZMM. Within 2 weeks, 45 of the 69 patients tested negative, while 24 did not develop worse symptoms. Similarly, VCO is also credited for keeping the Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Center (CPDRC) COVID-free. After taking VCO starting May 15, 7 jail workers with COVID-19 tested negative for the pathogen within a week. Three other workers tested negative within 8 days, he said. The jail has not tallied any new case of COVID-19 since. Dr. Dayrit, who’s also a professor at the Ateneo de Manila University-School of Science and Engineering's chemistry department, clarifies that these are not clinical studies. “They were invited to treat people, not to do a study. What we did was to gather data so that it can be explained more rationally. In 30 days, [the confirmed COVID positive patients] were all eventually negative,” said Dr. Dayrit. - - - Although what you just read used virgin coconut oil most types of coconut oil have the same properties and should get the same results. Please consider the fact that 7 jail workers with Covid tested negative within a week and 3 others within 8 days after taking coconut oil with no subsequent new cases. It at least appears coconut oil may possibly protect against covid 19. Consider that 45 of 69 Covid hospital patients were negative in two weeks and the rest within 30 days. One can cook with coconut oil. It does not create body damaging free radicals like most cooking oils and the saturated fat is of a type good for the body. ADDITIONALLY Coconut oil requires no insulin or bile to metabolize providing instant energy which is really good for athletes. It detoxifies the body of many deadly toxins, is highly anticancer and greatly improves nutrient absorption helping to alleviate malnutrition. The medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) in coconut oil kill many deadly viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites yet is totally safe. The MCFAs in coconut oil kill candida which is normally held in check by friendly intestinal bacteria but runs amok when antibiotics kill off the friendly intestinal bacteria. Coconut oil does not harm the friendly intestinal bacteria and should be taken in conjunction with any antibiotics. Everybody should probably be taking coconut oil. Check out the group site"Coconut Trivia" and Go to Www. Coconut Research Center. Org (no spaces)
My Spencer 1900 used for histology of biology
New State of Matter, Solid-Liquid-Gas-Plasma Combined State discovered where gas, plasma, solid, liquid, and gas state exist at the same time was discovered today by me. The Universe can be seen as an example of this combined Solid-Liquid-Gas-Plasma Combined state of matter. Kinetic Repulsive Force Discovered where two objects are repelled from each other related to Kinetic repulsion rather than charge Coulomb repulsion or magnetic repulsion. Kinetic Repulsive force can be seen when one kicks a ball into a wall and the ball repulses from the wall. Marbury v. Madison arguably makes 9 jobs available. The 9 Supreme Court Justices did not receive their commission physically from someone. Justice Marshall's opinion says their appeal for their positions are unconstitutional as the Judiciary Act is unconstitutional. 9 new Job openings arguably as just like Marbury the Supreme Court Justices did not get their commissions. James T. STruck BA, BS, AA, MLIS PO BOX 61 Evanston IL 60204
My discovery of 1. Chemical Table Based on Neutrons 2. Chemical Table Tower of elements based on atomic radius 3. Chemical Repulsive force where positive charges repelling other positive charges and negative charges repel negative charges showing evidence of fifth force of nature. 4. Avogadro's number not really being accurate as different gases have different atomic radius, so there would be different number of elements 5. The Center of the Galaxy possibly containing different chemicals and the faster rotation of nearby galaxies as possibly due to faster rotation rates that are unrelated to a black hole 6. Neutrons changing into protons producing new chemical generations 7. Protons seeping or leaking from atoms producing chemical decay generations 8. Chemicals as linked to minerals and geology and not really understandable by themselves completely 9. New chemical elements invention like Bicentennium Chemical Element 200, Chemical Element Sesquicentennium of Chemical Element 150, Chemical element Strakalaitisium 130 based on my deceased dad's surname Strakalaitis meaning jumping, and Chemical element 125 Quartercentennium are just as important as others work. 10. Discovery of Silver, Gold, Beryl being more common in the book Bible showing that certain chemicals are more present in certain areas of the world 11. Disproof of Exclusion principle that one could put more than 2 electrons in an energy level 12. Solidliquidgasplasma state a new state of matter 13. 100,000 Americans dying due to prescribed use of chemicals, so that even when prescribed use of medications can be dangerous 14. Other galaxies and stars containing chemical elements we do not even know of These discoveries could be seen as just as important as others work during the last year. James T. Struck BA, BS, AA, MLIS P.O. Box 61 Evanston IL 60204