Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center

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This year, Paisley Rekdal became the first writer of Asian descent to guest edit the Best American Poetry anthology seri...
12/22/2020
The Best American Poetry 2020: Asian American Poets

This year, Paisley Rekdal became the first writer of Asian descent to guest edit the Best American Poetry anthology series, which published its most recent edition this Fall. In an effort to celebrate the Asian American poets who appear in this year’s anthology, we teamed up with Paisley, the Asian American Writers Workshop, and the Asian American Literary Review, to present a series of 10 short readings by poets published in the anthology.

Thank you to poets Kaveh Bassiri, Victoria Chang, Khaled Mattawa, Hieu Minh Nguyen, Matthew Olzmann, Brandon Som, Arthur Sze, Ryo Yamaguci, Emily Yong, and Monica Youn for sharing their words.

Watch readings here: https://aaww.org/the-best-american-poetry-2020/

Watch readings by ten poets from this year’s Best American Poetry anthology, edited by Paisley Rekdal

Do you speak more than one language? If so, which languages do you speak at home? How does switching between languages i...
12/21/2020

Do you speak more than one language? If so, which languages do you speak at home? How does switching between languages influence your interactions with the world around you?

“Language really is the code of thinking,” says Kaleikoa Kaeo, a professor of ethnic studies at the University of Hawaii in Maui, in the beginning of the “Language of a Nation” four-part docuseries. “It is really the framework of how we see the world.”


Curious about the Hawaiian language? Check out these three resources:

1. In "Language of a Nation", Native Hawaiian filmmaker Conrad Lihilihi presents a four-part historical docuseries examining the 1896 Hawaiian Language Ban from public education. Watch episode 1 "Birth of a Literate Nation" on YouTube: https://youtu.be/zD1xmjbv548

2. Head to Smithsonian Magazine to read “What the Survival of the Hawaiian Language Means to Those Who Speak It” in which curator Kālewa Correa recalls his own experience learning the native tongue.

3. Read Daniella Zalcman’s story “The Inspiring Quest to Revive the Hawaiian Language” in the December issue of Smithsonian Magazine. The story follows a family that’s dedicated an incredible effort to preserve and sustain Hawaiian language in their own community and beyond.

#ourstories #languagelearning #smithsonian #hawaiianlanguage #hawaii #pacificislander

2020 has been difficult, but we must look to end the year with hope. We must embrace the lesson that as much as #hateisa...
12/17/2020

2020 has been difficult, but we must look to end the year with hope. We must embrace the lesson that as much as #hateisavirus, más #KindnessHeals.

The information on our #LearningTogether Kindness Heals page includes links to resources for educators in four categories:
1. Anti-Asian racism due to COVID-19
2. Activities and Videos for Students, Families, and Lifelong Learners
3. Content suitable for Social Studies units
4. Resources about Diverse Literature for the Classroom.

Using a mask as a blank canvas to inspire and educate youth, we've partnered with @ActToChange and @DKIInstitute on a personal protective equipment (PPE) mask design campaign around the theme “Kindness Heals.” Submit your mask artwork to our virtual art exhibition to inspire positive action!

smithsonianapa.org/learn/kindnessheals/

What is the #BambooCeiling and how does it play out in real life? Have you experienced the limits of the Bamboo Ceiling ...
12/14/2020

What is the #BambooCeiling and how does it play out in real life? Have you experienced the limits of the Bamboo Ceiling in your own professional journey? How do we explain this term to our students?


In our newest video of the “We are not a stereotype” educational series, star educators Takeru “TK” Nagayoshi and Soukprida Phetmisy illustrate how the Bamboo Ceiling manifests in real life through a character named Jennie Zhang. Through animation and storytelling, they follow Jennie as she navigates her career in school, and then as a professional, and break down moments where her identity as an Asian American factor into her success or failure.
https://smithsonianapa.org/learn/not-a-stereotype/

#BreakingAPABias #NotAStereotype #APA #AAPI #LearningLab #Education #EducationAnimation #Smithsonian

Save the date!
12/07/2020
Smithsonian Associates

Save the date!

How can Americans come together to examine some of the most vital issues that connect—and often separate us—as a nation today? The Smithsonian’s new initiative Race, Community and Our Shared Future, supported by Bank of America, will explore how we currently understand, experience, and confront race; its impact on communities; and how that impact is shaping the nation’s future.

Two free online panels serve as a prelude to the initiative’s official launch in 2021. The first on Wednesday, Dec. 9 focuses on women, wellness, and the arts, and features Joy Harjo, poet laureate of the United States, Dr. Marta Moreno Vega, founder of Creative Justice Initiative, co-founder of Corredor Afro, and founder and former president and CEO of the Caribbean Cultural Center African Diaspora Institute, and Lisa Sasaki, director of the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.

Though Asian Pacific Americans account for the fastest-growing major racial or ethnic group in the country, a 2016 Depar...
12/04/2020

Though Asian Pacific Americans account for the fastest-growing major racial or ethnic group in the country, a 2016 Department of Education report states that less than 2% of teachers identify as Asian American or Pacific Islander. These statistics show that America’s rapidly evolving demographics are not reflected within the nation’s teaching workforce.

Why are there not more APA educators? What implications does this have on our students and America’s education system? How do we rectify this disparity in representation?

Takeru “TK” Nagayoshi and Soukprida Phetmisy share their experience as APA educators and discuss similar gaps in representation amongst the American workforce in “The Bamboo Ceiling” – the newest video of our educational series, “We are not a stereotype.”

https://smithsonianapa.org/learn/not-a-stereotype/

#BreakingAPABias #Education #LearningLab #NotAStereotype #Teachers #APA #AAPI #Smithsonian

“I think what shines through doing this album [Wild Wild East] is the coming forward of the multiple identities of an im...
12/02/2020

“I think what shines through doing this album [Wild Wild East] is the coming forward of the multiple identities of an immigrant – in my case being Indian American – not just this longing for South Asia and India, but the fact that I am American and there’s many complex interactions within all that.” - Sunny Jain

Thank you to our cherished community for making #GivingTuesday such a huge success. We know there are more caring, curious lifelong learners out there who want to invest in the Center’s work but didn’t get a chance to join yesterday during the bustle of #GivingTuesday. So we’re keeping our pledge drive active for the entire month of December!

Until Dec. 31, make a donation and join us in our work to amplify stories that reflect the diversity and complexity of Asian Pacific America through groundbreaking programming, thought-provoking webinars and free educational resources. As a special thank you, we’ll be sending out gifts such as Sunny Jain’s latest album.

When we put out new digital resources or share artwork by emerging artists, I hope you take a moment to appreciate that your support makes these things possible.

Give at smithsonianapa.org/pledge2020 💫

#Smithsonian #GivingTuesday #APA #AAPI #LearningTogether #MuseumEd #CultureLab #HERITAGEiRL

Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center's cover photo
12/02/2020

Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center's cover photo

Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center's cover photo
12/01/2020

Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center's cover photo

It's #GivingTuesday and we’re launching our year-end pledge drive!Asian Pacific Americans are the fastest growing popula...
12/01/2020

It's #GivingTuesday and we’re launching our year-end pledge drive!

Asian Pacific Americans are the fastest growing population in the United States and yet, our collective histories and stories are not widely known. The Center takes pride in providing resources and content that uplift and illuminate the voices of Asian Pacific Americans within the complex story of this nation.

But we cannot do it alone! By supporting the Center you are ensuring that the collective Asian Pacific American voice will be preserved for future generations and that Asian Pacific American stories are shared across the Smithsonian’s 19 museums and 9 research centers!

It is friends like you who inspire us; without you our work is not possible. We've set a goal of welcoming 30 new donors. Join us today and make your tax-deductible donation at https://smithsonianapa.org/pledge2020/.

Did you know? Hawai’i was the first non-European recognized nation!Today we recognize Lā Kūʻokoʻa, Hawaiian Independence...
11/28/2020

Did you know? Hawai’i was the first non-European recognized nation!

Today we recognize Lā Kūʻokoʻa, Hawaiian Independence Day. On November 28, 1843, the Anglo-Franco Proclamation was signed, recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

The Hawaiian Kingdom entered into treaties with the major nations of the world and established over ninety legations and consulates in multiple seaports and cities. Curator Kālewa Correa created the map below, which marks consulate locations across the world.

#HawaiianKingdom #HawaiianIndependenceDay

On Saturday, November 28th we recognize Lā Kūʻokoʻa, Hawaiian Independence Day. In tribute to the significance of Lā Kūʻ...
11/25/2020

On Saturday, November 28th we recognize Lā Kūʻokoʻa, Hawaiian Independence Day. In tribute to the significance of Lā Kūʻokoʻa through the media arts, Curator Kālewa Correa and Professor Kahele Cruz will show an episode of "Language of a Nation" and lead a virtual talk story today at 12PM HST/5 PM EST via Zoom.

In #LanguageOfANation, Native Hawaiian filmmaker Conrad Lihilihi presents a four part historical Docu-series examining the 1896 Hawaiian Language Ban from public education. Watch episode 3 "How to Overthrow a Government" on YouTube, and learn how a group of local businessmen performed a coup to overthrow the government of Hawai'i with the support of the U.S. Marines.

Watch episode 3 here: http://youtube.com/watch?v+A8B0I1LhagM

Register for the Zoom talk story here: https://bit.ly/1125TalkStory

#HawaiianKingdom #HawaiianIndependenceDay

What meaningful interconnections can we make with students in our classrooms, and our homes, about important topics arou...
11/23/2020

What meaningful interconnections can we make with students in our classrooms, and our homes, about important topics around the world?

How can educators and artists collaborate to help our students make these interconnections?

Why is it important for students to think about how they are interconnected with the world?

All four of the Making Art + Global Interconnections modules are now available online for educators to access on our #LearningTogether platform! In this module series you will find four new art-making ideas that can be implemented in in-person, at-home, and/or virtual K12 classrooms.

Each module includes:

• A copy of the lesson that you can download as a PDF
• Smithsonian Learning Lab collections with images of each
step in the art-making process
• Access to a webinar that introduces you to creators of the
lessons and a presentation of how the lessons can be done with students

We are proud to share this collaborative project—created by women educators, artists and an art historian—with you. Feel free to share the work you create with your classrooms and communities online and tag #MakingArt.

https://smithsonianapa.org/learn/making-art/

#ArtEducation #LearningLab #LearningTogether #WomenEducators #HowToThinkLikeAnArtist #Storytelling #K12 #VirtualLearning #SmithsonianAPAC #Smithsonian

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are vibrant, diverse communities, spanning more than 100 languages and 20 countrie...
11/20/2020

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are vibrant, diverse communities, spanning more than 100 languages and 20 countries of origin. No single narrative captures these communities’ experiences; millions of individual stories make up an ever-changing mosaic.

At Smithsonian APA, we work to activate all of these distinct communities. Explore our #LearningTogether online venue, the digital storytelling initiative #OurStories, and more of our past exhibitions on smithsonianapa.org.

11/19/2020

Draw your Filipino American story with Angel Trazo and Malaka Gharib! In this one-hour Facebook Live workshop, you will create and complete your very own ‘zine about your Filipino American story. Meet us at 6pm EDT at facebook.com/smithsonianapa!

11/17/2020

Draw your Filipino American story with Angel Trazo and Malaka Gharib! In this one-hour workshop, you will create and complete your very own ‘zine about your Filipino American story.

2020 has been a difficult year. From the xenophobia towards Asians and Asian Americans caused by COVID-19, the dispropor...
11/13/2020

2020 has been a difficult year. From the xenophobia towards Asians and Asian Americans caused by COVID-19, the disproportionate number of COVID-19 cases affecting BIPOC communities, and to the national uprisings surrounding the Black Lives Matter movement, 2020 has also brought attention to longstanding injustices and how we can hope to change for the better. We can become stronger together as we embrace the lesson that #KindnessHeals.

Design a mask to inspire positive action, and to end 2020 with a message of hope. Submit your creative designs to our #KindnessHeals youth art campaign with Act To Change, the Daniel K. Inouye Institute, and Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.

https://smithsonianapa.org/learn/kindnessheals/

At Smithsonian APA, we strive to acknowledge this country's history and its impact on today.The National Origins Formula...
11/04/2020

At Smithsonian APA, we strive to acknowledge this country's history and its impact on today.

The National Origins Formula, which determined U.S. immigration policy for decades, had been established in the 1920s to preserve American homogeneity by promoting immigration from Northwestern Europe. During the 1960s, at the height of the Civil Rights Movement, this approach increasingly came under attack for being racially discriminatory toward immigrants of color.

In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Immigration and Nationality Act into law. The act abolished the National Origins Formula, prohibiting discrimination against Southern and Eastern Europeans, Asians, and other non-Northwestern European ethnic groups from American immigration policy.

Prior to this legislation, the McCarran-Walter Act of 1952 granted all people of Asian ancestry the right to become citizens and the Civil Rights movement initiated large scale movements in the American South to register black voters, while Native Americans had to litigate against state governments to remove legal barriers for voting.

#VoteHistory #AsianAmerican #Immigration #Citizenship #APAHistory

At Smithsonian APA, we think deeply about how to best show up during challenging periods. We always find the answer in o...
11/03/2020
Care Package: Cultural Nutrients for Times Like This

At Smithsonian APA, we think deeply about how to best show up during challenging periods. We always find the answer in our community.

Care Package is a collection of creative offerings by artists, writers, and scholars who we have collaborated with in recent years. Here, you will find a range of approaches to addressing uncertainty, anxiety, and grief through vision, reflection, and healing. Most have been exhibited in past programs, but have never been made widely accessible until now.

https://smithsonianapa.org/care/

Presented by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center

What meaningful interconnections can we make with students in our classrooms, and our homes, about important topics arou...
10/22/2020

What meaningful interconnections can we make with students in our classrooms, and our homes, about important topics around the world? How can educators and artists collaborate to help our students make these interconnections? Why is it important for students to think about how they are interconnected with the world?

In collaboration with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center is proud to present “Making Art + Global Interconnections,” a new module series for K12 educators seeking new ideas for the classroom that weave together the processes of art-making and understanding our interconnections to topics and issues around the world.

This evening, we kick off the webinar series with "Portraits of a Global Perspective," in which educator Shawna Longo and artist Helen Zughaib [@hzughaib] share a lesson on creating portraits inspired by a story.

We have more webinars coming out this fall! Sign up for webinars and access the Learning Lab collections: #MakingArtGlobal http://bit.ly/makingartglobal

Explore the #SmithsonianFood History Weekend digital galleries, which tell personal and deeply historical stories about ...
10/17/2020
Gallery – FOOD HISTORY WEEKEND

Explore the #SmithsonianFood History Weekend digital galleries, which tell personal and deeply historical stories about food justice through objects, works of literature, and artworks curated by artists and Smithsonian staff. https://foodhistoryweekend.si.edu/gallery/

View Grace Young’s “Coronavirus: Chinatown Stories,” which explores the virus’ impact on New York’s Chinatown. https://foodhistoryweekend.si.edu/featured-artist-young/ #SmithsonianFood

Tune in to the "COVID-19 & Hunger" Deep-Dish Dialogue at 11:00 a.m. ET with National Museum of American History to explo...
10/17/2020
Deep Dish Dialogue – FOOD HISTORY WEEKEND

Tune in to the "COVID-19 & Hunger" Deep-Dish Dialogue at 11:00 a.m. ET with National Museum of American History to explore how the pandemic has exposed inequities in the food system. Learn about the organizations that formed on the spot or adopted new models in response to exponential increases in need.

Learn how Vinny Eng, community organizer at SF New Deal has examined the state of hunger, poverty, and food access in the U.S. to identify how we got here, and to share ideas and strategies for achieving a more equitable and accessible food system in the future #SmithsonianFood https://foodhistoryweekend.si.edu/deep-dish-dialogue/

Join tonight’s free, virtual Food History Gala from Home with the National Museum of American History, when @DaniNierenb...
10/15/2020
Smithsonian Food History Weekend

Join tonight’s free, virtual Food History Gala from Home with the National Museum of American History, when @DaniNierenberg receives the Julia Child Award in recognition of her impactful work with communities and organizations across Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. Register: http://s.si.edu/FoodHistoryWknd

Join us online for our free 6th annual Food History Weekend, October 15-17. Register today!

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SAN FRANCISCO IMMIGRATION STATION (1944-1954) – Suicide of a War Bride After Angel Island Immigration closed in 1940, when Administration building burned down, the Immigration and Naturalization Service operated San Francisco Immigration Station, from 1944 to 1954. The detention center in the Financial District was housed at United States Appraisers Building on 630 Sansome Street. Two floors had dormitories, kitchens, dining and day rooms, and recreation areas. The officials cruelly treated Chinese immigrants, include war brides of Chinese American veterans of World War II. One sad tale is about Leong (surname) Bick Ha, a war bride from Toishan. “Leong Bick Ha came to the United States as a war bride, the Chinese wife of U.S. Army Sergeant Eng Bak Teung. In 1948, following an extensive interview process with immigration officials in China, Leong traveled to the United States with her 15-year-old son (Eng Tuck Lung) to begin a new life. After arriving in San Francisco, Leong and her son faced a rigorous, and very backlogged, examination process before she could rejoin her husband — a sort of mid-century “extreme vetting.” Finally, in September, after three months of personnel shortages and delays, Leong received her official interview. Immigration officials interrogated her about everything from her family, to her relationship with her spouse, to her political views, searching for even the smallest inconsistency in her story. Some interviews with immigration officials lasted over seven hours, and few immigrants left these hearings feeling confident they had convinced authorities. The night after her immigration interview, having spent three months in an office building separated from her husband and her son, Leong Bick Ha hung herself in a shower stall on the 13th floor of 630 Sansome Street.” As a detainee or his or her descendant, please contact me to share your memories or stories about the San Francisco Immigration Station.
THE SECOND TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD – From California to New Mexico (1869 to 1881) For AsAmNews, I wrote an article about the Second Transcontinental Railroad – “Here’s how Chinese built the “other” transcontinental railroad”.
ASAMNEWS - Racism impact: 5 Generations of a Chinese Family in the US For AsAmNews, I wrote an article about Bruce Quan, Jr.’s book - BITTER ROOTS – Five Generations of a Chinese Family in America. In Part One: The Rise and Fall of the First Chinese Industrialist in America, Quan talks about Lew Hing, his great grandfather. Lew faced racism impact in America as he developed his cannery business and other business ventures. BITTER ROOTS book is available from Amazon.
ANGEL ISLAND IMMIGRATION STATION – “I was detained as an immigrant on Angel Island in 1952.” Ken Moy, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, contends that he, his brother (Sam Moy), his mother and his aunt was among the last Chinese immigrants be detained on Angel Island Immigration Station at San Francisco, California, during the Cold War. The official history says that AIIS was closed for detention of immigrants in 1940, after the administration building burned down. During World War II, prisoners were held on Angel Island. After the fall of China to the Communists, fearful people escaped by sampans to Hong Kong. Ken and his family escaped Toishan, Kwangtung. Pirates had raided their sampan for valuables. There were the first boat people. Moy, as King Min Moy, arrived on April 2, 1952, via Philippines Airlines, in San Francisco, at age of 6 years old. They stayed at the women quarters. He was scared of the White Americans. They were released to Gene Wing Moy, his father, to live in Milwaukee, on December 23, 1952. I wonder if Ken Moy is telling an urban legend or true story? Fiction or fact? Please let me know. Thanks.
NEW ENGLAND - Chinese Restaurant Finances in the 1920s For SAMPAN, the only bilingual Chinese-English Newspaper in New England, Richard Auffrey has written “Chinese Restaurant Finances in the 1920s.” Richard describes the financing at Royal Restaurant in Boston Chinatown and at Imperial Restaurant in Central Square of Cambridge. Moi Chung, my grandfather, from Hoyping, Kwangtung, Cathay, was partner for both restaurants. He was a grandson of a railroad worker of the First Transcontinental Railroad.
THE ZHANG CLAN ODYSSEY: Zhang Weiming - My Kaiping Journey - From Gold Mountain To Dragon Hill Village On my The Zhang Clan Odyssey website, I poignantly describe the journey to my ancestral land of Kaiping at Jiangmen in Guangdong, China. My Dragon Hill Village is nestled in the countryside of the Pearl River Delta, in the Wuyi region. On May 8, 2009, I wistfully honored my Zhang ancestors, with Qingming festival. Amid the stony tombs on the Hill of the Flying Swan: my great great great grandfather, the gold miner of California Gold Rush; my great great grandfather, the railroad worker on the Transcontinental Railroad; and my great grandfather, the Boston Chinatown gambling and opium entrepreneur. https://www.mychinaroots.com/samples/zhang-odyssey/index.html#140 My China Roots, Beijing, China, created the Zhang Clan Odyssey site, for me.
PROFESSOR YONG CHEN AND “CHOP SUEY, USA” – A Zoom Webinar The Conversation Kitchen of University of California at Irvine will feature Professor Yong Chen’s book Chop Suey, USA. He and Chef Jessica Van Roo will muse about the culinary dishes of Chop Suey in USA. Chop Suey is the comfort food of the Cantonese sojourners on Gold Mountain. From the iconic musical and movie, “Flower Drum Song,” a tasty ode to Chop Suey: “Chop Suey” Chop suey, chop suey! Living here is very much like chop suey. Hula hoops and nuclear war, Doctor Salk and Zsa Zsa Gabor, Bobby Darin, Sandra Dee, and Dewey, Chop suey, --Chop suey!-- Stars are drifting overhead, Birds and worms have gone to bed. Men work late in laboratories, Others read detective stories. Some are roaming 'round the country, Others sit beneath just one tree. Tonight on TV's Late, Late Show You can look at Clara Bow! --Who?-- Chop suey, chop suey! Good and bad, intelligent, mad, and screwy. Violins and trumpets and drums, Take it all the way that it comes, Sad and funny, sour and honey dewy, Chop suey! Ballpoint pens and filter tips, Lipsticks and potato chips. In the dampest kind of heat wave You can give your hair a neat wave. Hear that lovely La Paloma, Lullaby by Perry Como. Dreaming in my Maiden form bra, Dreamed I danced the Cha-Cha-Cha. Chop suey, chop suey! Mixed with all the hokum and bally hooey. Something real and glowing grand. Sheds a light all over the land. Boston, Austin, Wichita, and St. Louey, Chop suey. Chop suey, chop suey! Chop suey, chop suey!
ASAMNEWS - 28 Chinese miners massacred in Wyoming in 1885 over jobs On behalf of AsAmNews, I wrote an article about the ugly massacre of Chinese coal miners at Rock Springs in Wyoming Territory. After the enactment of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, anti-Chinese sentiment swept the wildlands of the American West. Whites discriminated against the Chinese; Whites expelled the Chinese from Chinatowns; Whites slaughtered the Chinese at towns, fields, and mines. A bitter memory of a brutal incident against the Chinese, on September 2, 1885 – The Rock Springs Massacre.
GIM SUEY CHONG - Chinese American World War II Veteran As we honor and remember our veterans on Veterans Day, November 11, 2020, I reminisce about Gim Suey Chong, my father. Gim was a Chinese American World War II Veteran. He served with United States Naval Reserve. His all-Chinese crew diligently maintained the China Clipper, the world-famous flying boat and other seaplanes, to and from Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. They performed crucial maintenance at Treasure Island Station on the San Francisco Bay, east of San Francisco. He was discharged on December 7, 1945. From Hoyping in Kwangtung province of China, Gim arrived at the Port of Boston, as a paper son – an illegal immigrant, on April 20, 1932. He was a victim of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. He was separated from his mother, for 34 years, until February 14, 1966. They reunited at Los Angeles International Airport. Gim was a descendant of Chinese gold miner during the California Gold Rush and of Chinese railroad worker on the Transcontinental Railroad On Angel Island Immigrant Station Foundation website, under Immigrant Voices, Gim is profiled in “Gim Suey Chong: Our Quiet Man.”
MOI CHUNG – Our Chop Suey Man Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation has posted “Moi Chung: Our Chop Suey Man” in their DISCOVER section about immigrant stories. Moi Chung, my grandfather, was a sojourner from Hoyping of Kongmoon in Kwangtung of Imperial Cathay. His great grandfather was a gold miner in California. His grandfather was a railroad worker on the Transcontinental Railroad. His father was a gambling hall and opium den owner at Boston Chinatown. On Gold Mountain, he faced the racial scourge by Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. After his arrival on Angel Island Immigration Station, in 1912, he owned Chop Suey houses at Boston Chinatown and at Cambridge Central Square. He owned a dry goods store at San Francisco Chinatown. Due to Chinese Exclusion Act, for 43 years, Moi Chung was cruelly separated from Cun Chuen Wong, his beloved wife, my grandmother, from 1923 to 1966, until Valentine’s Day at Los Angeles International Airport.
WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY – The Rock Springs Massacre Tom Rea, editor with Wyoming State Historical Society, wrote a reflective article, “The Rock Springs Massacre.” His insightful narrative describes the horrific slaughter of 28 Chinese coal miners by a White mob, on September 2, 1885, at Rock Springs in Wyoming Territory. Governor Francis E. Warren skillfully prevented more Chinese killings. Tom Rea reflected: “White miners and their families—most of them recent immigrants from Europe-- almost certainly felt the Chinese miners, willing to work for lower wages, were keeping white miners’ wages low as well. And with company officials having been instructed the year before to hire only Chinese miners from then on, the white miners would feel their jobs—and their livelihoods—were under a more direct threat than ever. There would have been a lot of racism mixed in with their feelings as well. A whole lot.”