Bicentenario Liman Euskal Nazioaren Semeek 1612an sortua
Founded by "the Sons of the Basque Nation in Lima" in 1612
Fundada por «los hijos de la Nación Vascongada en Lima» en 1612

Un pagina nacida para informar de «lo que el mundo dice de los vascos» y para contar las historias que ha generado la presencia vasca en el mundo

Un pagina nacida para informar de «lo que el mundo dice de los vascos» y para contar las historias que ha generado la presencia vasca en el mundo

Operating as usual

US National Archives

US National Archives

In 1950, there were 140,000 census enumerators tasked with counting the over 150 million residents of the United States, including reservations, territories, and possessions.

Counting the population in 1950 was a big job; so is ensuring the timely release of that information 72 years later. Our staff are up to the challenge!
The National Archives is planning an all-digital roll out of the 1950 Census in April 2022.

Our staff have scanned thousands of rolls of microfilm containing the population schedules. In our Cartographic Branch, staff scanned over 8,000 census maps from 1950 and added them to our online Catalog. We're creating informational content, tutorials, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), a website, and more!

Read the full update on the Text Message:

US National Archives

US National Archives

During the pandemic, most of our staff have been working from home. George Fuller, archival reference technician, has discovered that he loves working on transcribing documents in our online Catalog.

In this blog post, he share his discoveries--from a drawing of a pennant to a jewel theft--while working on “Letters received by the Collector of the Customs at Boston” between 1789–1882.

Thanks to George, these records are now more accessible to our online users!

Read more:


Image: Letter from Oliver Wolcott to the Treasury Department, October 11, 1798. National Archives Identifier: 124218516.

US National Archives

US National Archives

Temple Lester, a middle-school student from Georgia, was visiting the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture when she spotted a 1972 poster from Shirley Chisholm's Presidential campaign.

When she returned home, she learned more about the politician's life and decided that Chisolm’s life experiences would make a great topic for her National History Day project. The theme was “Breaking Barriers in History."

She dug into archival collections, including the National Archives, and the result is her 2020 NHD Junior Individual Documentary, "Shirley Chisholm: The Good Fight."

What advice does Temple have for students just starting out on an NHD research journey? She would definitely tell students to check out the visual sources at the National Archives, because there are “many more photos than you can find at any other source, and with a federal website you know it is a reliable source.”

We're delighted that Temple found the primary sources she needed for her research at the National Archives.

Watch her video on the blog!

US National Archives

US National Archives

On June 5, 1866, President Andrew Johnson issued an executive order requiring enforcement of the neutrality laws that made attacking Canada illegal.

That did not put an end to the attacks, known as Fenian Raids.

In the wake of the Great Famine of 1845–52, hundreds of thousands of Irish Americans immigrated to the United States. Many of them did not leave their Irish politics behind and joined organizations dedicated to the cause of ending British rule in Ireland.

One of the earliest American-born organizations was the Fenian Brotherhood, founded in 1858 by Irish immigrants John O’Mahony and Michael Doheny.

One of the Fenian Brotherhood’s best-known actions in North America are the series of attacks they led on British Army forts and customs posts in Canada in 1866, 1870, and 1871. The Fenian Raids were made in the hope of forcing the United Kingdom into negotiating the formation of an independent Irish Republic.

Read the full post on the Pieces of History log:

Photo: John Francis O’Mahony.

US National Archives

US National Archives

“How can I learn about 1930s 'She-She-She' camps established by Eleanor Roosevelt? Were they like Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps? Did they include women of color?”

See the answer to our #QuestionoftheWeek on #HistoryHub, our crowdsourced platform for history and genealogical research where anyone can ask questions and get answers from archivists and other community members.


US National Archives

US National Archives

Four years before ratification of the 19th Amendment secured American women’s constitutional right to vote, Jeannette Rankin became the first woman elected to Congress. Rankin was sworn in as a representative for Montana on April 2, 1917. She served a second term in the House of Representatives in 1941.

Both of Representative Rankin’s congressional terms coincided with the country’s entry into a World War. A lifelong pacifist, Rankin has the distinction of being the only member of Congress to vote against U.S. involvement in both World War I and World War II. During her time in Congress, Rankin also made significant efforts to secure woman suffrage and pass social reforms that improved working conditions and protected women and children.

Upon learning of her election in 1916, Rankin foretold, “I may be the first woman member of Congress, but I won’t be the last.” As of 2021, 387 women have served in the U.S. Congress.

See more documents related to Representative Rankin in our online exhibit:

Photo: Group portrait of the sixty-fifth U.S. Congress in front of the U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C., 1917-1919. (detail) Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ppmsca-13272.

#WomensHistoryMonth #WHM2021

US National Archives

US National Archives

Nichelle Nichols and William Shatner, who just turned 90 this week, made on-screen history when the two co-stars kissed during an episode of "Star Trek"--one of the earliest examples of an interracial kiss on television.

Nichols--seen here at a NASA Visitor Information Center in 1977--played the role of Communication Officer Lieutenant Uhura on the original "Star Trek." She was the first African American woman to play a lead role on television, inspiring fans like Martin Luther King, Jr, and Whoopi Goldberg.

When the series ended in 1968, Nichols was invited to work with NASA. She recruited minorities and women--including Guion Bluford, Sally Ride, and Mae Jemison--to boldly go into the ranks of real-life space adventurers.


#WomensHistoryMonth #WHM2021

US National Archives

US National Archives

Willa Beatrice Brown took her first flight in Chicago in the early thirties. Within a decade, she went from flying enthusiast to aviator, flight instructor, and later officer and civil rights activist, creating a path for thousands of Black men and women to become pilots.

Brown began taking lessons at the racially segregated Harlem Airport outside Chicago, joined a black flying club called the Aero Challenger Club, and met pilot, plane mechanic, and future husband Cornelius Coffey.

From 1934 to 1937, while she trained to be a pilot, she earned her master mechanic’s certificate and a master’s in Business Administration at Northwestern University. Brown gained her first “first” in 1938, when she became the first black woman to be licensed as a private pilot in the United States.

In 1938, Brown and Coffey opened the Coffey School of Aeronautics at Harlem Airport. Their school was the first flight school owned and operated by African Americans.

When Congress appropriated $5,675,000 for the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA) to begin 220 pilot training programs across the country, the Coffey School of Aeronautics was authorized as a CAA school by January 1940. Brown’s roles were director and coordinator of training.

Letters from Brown to numerous leaders in Washington, DC, show her tireless efforts for their school to be part of the Army training program. Despite Brown’s disappointment that the Army would not allow the Coffey School of Aeronautics to train pilots for the Army, the school was selected to provide black trainees for the Air Corps pilot training program at the Tuskegee Institute.

This pilot training program led to the creation of the Tuskegee Airmen, and Brown trained nearly 200 of the men and women who went on to become cadets or instructors. Many of her former students made up the 99th Fighter Squadron, also known as the “Red Tails.”

Learn more in our blog post on Pieces of History:

Photo: “Lola Albright and Willa Brown, black pilots, at Harlem Airport, Chicago.” Records of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Archives

#WHM2021 #WomensHistoryMonth

US National Archives

US National Archives

Louise Arner Boyd led seven self-financed Arctic expeditions, published three books of photographs through the American Geographical Society, chartered the first private flyover of the North Pole, and was honored with numerous awards and medals.

Boyd was born in 1887 into a wealthy family in San Rafael, California. Her siblings died young, leaving her the only heir to a large fortune. Unlike most of her male contemporaries, she could personally finance her pricey hobby of Arctic exploration rather than have to rely on large institutions or benefactors for funding.

Boyd's first major expedition into the Arctic was as a big-game hunter, chartering a Norwegian sealing vessel in 1926. Boyd shot 21,000 feet of motion picture film and 700 photographs--and 11 polar bears--while on the trip. But it was her next trip that would set her on a new path.

When she arrived in Norway for another hunting cruise in 1928, polar explorer Roald Amundsen had disappeared. Boyd immediately offered her services to the Norwegian government to aid in the search. The hunting party and the boat's crew searched for 10 weeks. Boyd filmed throughout the endeavor—a total of 20,000 feet of motion picture film in all.

Although they found no trace of Amundsen, Boyd's contribution to the search was significant. Boyd came in contact with a great number of Arctic explorers and scientists and found her calling to organize scientific work in a difficult region about which much was unknown. What began as an expensive hobby had evolved into a serious undertaking.

In 1974, the Center for Polar Archives at the National Archives acquired 150 reels of Louise Boyd's motion picture films from the San Rafael Elks Lodge, which had purchased the Boyd home prior to Louise's death.

By 1980 all of the deteriorating nitrate reels had been copied to new safety film stock. The films cover Boyd's early tourist travels in the United States and Europe through all of her major Arctic expeditions. Boyd shot all of this footage herself.

Photo: Louise Boyd records the attempted 1928 rescue mission with a 1mm camera. (401.083.028)


US National Archives
US National Archives

US National Archives

More than 15 million maps, charts, aerial photographs, architectural drawings, patents, and ship plans can be found in the cartographic and architectural holdings in the National Archives at College Park, Maryland.

We've chosen a few for you to explore in our latest edition of the online Catalog Newsletter.

US National Archives

US National Archives

“What are the origins of #WomensHistoryMonth and why is it in March?”

Our colleagues at The Library of Congress and National Women's History Museum contributed to the answer to our latest #QuestionOfTheWeek on #HistoryHub, our crowdsourced platform for history and genealogical research where anyone can ask questions and get answers from archivists and other community members.

US National Archives

US National Archives

As Assistant U.S. Attorney General, Mabel Walker Willebrandt was the highest-ranking woman in President Harding’s and Coolidge’s administrations.

Willebrandt moved to Los Angeles in 1912 with her husband, and while supporting them both on a teacher’s salary, she graduated from the University of Southern California with a law degree in 1916 and became Los Angeles’s first female public defender.

Willebrandt did not personally support Prohibition, but her passion for the law was enough. As the Assistant U.S. Attorney General, she and her staff focused on large-scale bootlegging operations and argued before the Supreme Court that illegal income was taxable. This meant that undeclared income made from illegal operations like bootlegging could be considered tax evasion and a felony.

After leaving the Federal government, Willebrandt became a celebrated attorney in the film industry, while still practicing tax law, Later, she became an expert in federal regulations in aviation.

Learn more about her career in today’s Pieces of History blog:

Photo: Letter from O. A. Calandria to Mabel Willebrandt identifying two establishments in New Jersey breaking the Prohibition Law, 4/1929. National Archives Identifier: 299827

US National Archives

US National Archives

Happy St. Patrick's Day! Many stories of Irish immigrants can be traced through the records held in the National Archives.

On November 8, 1909, Bridget Donaghy arrived in Philadelphia with her sister on a ship called the Haverford. They had been sent by their father to live with an older cousin, Lilly McCrystal, a retired schoolteacher who owned property in the city.

This would be the beginning of Bridget's journey from immigration to naturalization.

We can follow this paper trail of through her life because of a collection of records called the Decisions of the Board of Special Inquiry at the Port of Philadelphia. Details in these kinds of Federal records (marriage dates, birth dates of children, addresses, etc) provide a jumping-off point for researchers to delve into vital records held by city and county archives.

Have you found Irish ancestors in your family tree?

Learn more in today's blog post:

Image: Passenger Arrival Record, see Bridget Donaghy on line 27.

US National Archives

US National Archives

😨 Lackies of the capitalists
😡 Titoist clique
😵 Manical greatpower chauvinists
😱 Eye-washers

These are just a few of the insults documented in the "Short Lexicon of the Sino-Soviet War of Words" from 1964.

One of the major developments of the Cold War was the evolution of a split between the two major communist powers, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the People’s Republic of China (PRC).

Using colorful language to characterize the other side, the rival communist camps spewed invective at each other as part of their efforts to discredit their opponent and win the support of other communist parties.

In May 1964, Rollie H. White, who worked in the office of the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, compiled the following list of the competing terms of endearment the two sides aimed at each other as they tried to win friends and influence enemies among the various Communist parties around the world.

See the full blog post:

Image: Short Lexicon of the Sino-Soviet War of Words, May 18, 1964.

US National Archives

US National Archives

Happy #NationalPandaDay!

If you are a fan of the pandas at the National Zoo in Washington, DC, thank First Lady Pat Nixon.

She saw the animals at the Peking Zoo during her historic 1972 trip to China. Later, a dinner conversation between Mrs. Nixon and Premier Zhou inspired the Chinese leader to send a pair to the United States.

On April 16, 1972, the First Lady welcomed pandas Ling-Ling and Hsing-Hsing to the National Zoo. In her remarks at the dedication, she predicted that “Panda-monium” would break out in the capital, and she was right.

Ling-Ling and Hsing-Hsing would draw hundreds of people every day, as would the other pandas who later lived at the zoo.

Have you visited the current pandas Tian Tian, Mei Xiang, and their cub Xiao Qi Ji?

Photo: Pat Nixon, Chinese interpreters and officials, and an entourage of international press corps reporters and photographers view a panda at the Peking Zoo, 2/22/1972.

US National Archives

US National Archives

We're pleased to invite you to "Films of State," a free, online conference focused on government films on April 7-9, 2021.

The National Archives is the archival repository of the United States government, including the Apollo 11 raw footage, the Iwo Jima flag raising, the March on Washington, and the first color film of Yellowstone National Park!

We preserve more than half a million reels of film and hundreds of thousands of sound and video recordings made by federal agencies. The Motion Picture Preservation Lab physically handles about 2 million feet of film per year – if laid out end-to-end, it would be greater than the distance between College Park, MD, and Boston, MA!

Did you know that works produced by the United States government are not subject to copyright and are treated as though in the public domain? This means we likely also have the largest public domain film collection in the world--just waiting for you to explore it!

Learn more about the conference:

Image: “Jean Bridget (Left) and Mrs. Ethel Burke examine some of the 100,000,000 feet of film in the National Archives movie library before cataloguing it. 10/8/1944” (Local Identifier: 208-FS-3221)


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Starting in the 19the century, the families that make up the current base of the Brotherhood of Our Lady of Aránzazu of Lima were the leaders of an intense expansion and settling process in the United States of America as a result of their commercial and production activities.

This expansion has three main focus areas: the East Coast, centered in New York; the West Coast, centered in San Francisco and Los Angeles, and the South, centered in Atlanta.

New York became the center of the commercial and financial activities of these families, who moved there, creating commercial headquarters and integrating themselves into the commercial and financial activity of that place.

On the West Coast, their bases of operations were the large ports, because that’s where their commercial activities with the Far East on the clipper lines were based as their activities grew in that part of the Americas.

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