Bristol Community College History and Social Sciences Department

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16 Royals Who Suffered From Hereditary Mutations And Defects Caused By Inbreeding
02/18/2020
16 Royals Who Suffered From Hereditary Mutations And Defects Caused By Inbreeding

16 Royals Who Suffered From Hereditary Mutations And Defects Caused By Inbreeding

Consanguinity, the act of marrying a biological relative, has been a mainstay of royal families for about as long as there have been dynasties. On paper, the idea makes perfect sense: marry a relative, keep the bloodline utterly pure by producing children from consanguineous marriages, and if a disp...

UK viewers horrified at Irish famine story
07/27/2019
UK viewers horrified at Irish famine story

UK viewers horrified at Irish famine story

British TV viewers took to social media in horror after watching a drama about the true horrors of the Irish famine.

Embrace of the Serpent star: 'My tribe is nearly extinct'
06/10/2019
Embrace of the Serpent star: 'My tribe is nearly extinct'

Embrace of the Serpent star: 'My tribe is nearly extinct'

Their land was plundered for rubber while they were enslaved or killed. As Embrace of the Serpent tells the story of the tribespeople of Colombia, its star relives a moving screening in the heart of the jungle

A Moving Read About the Adjunct Underclass
05/09/2019
A Moving Read About the Adjunct Underclass

A Moving Read About the Adjunct Underclass

Normally the only contingent faculty career that could bring me to tears was my own, but the latter stages of The Adjunct Underclass: How America’s Colleges Betrayed Their Faculty, Their Students, and Their Mission by Herb Childress had my eyes filling sometimes with sadness, sometimes tinged with...

The Mind of Leonardo Da Vinci
05/02/2019
The Mind of Leonardo Da Vinci

The Mind of Leonardo Da Vinci

At the 500th anniversary of his death we can consider Leonardo’s meaning in our era.

Hitler's First Victims
04/29/2019
Hitler's First Victims

Hitler's First Victims

Author Timothy Ryback explains how, in 1933, four Jewish political prisoners at Dachau concentration camp became some of the first victims of Hitler and the Nazis.

Magdalene Laundry inmates tried escape in laundry baskets
04/27/2019
Magdalene Laundry inmates tried escape in laundry baskets

Magdalene Laundry inmates tried escape in laundry baskets

A booklet entitled "Remember, Respect and Record" recounts the experience of inmates at the Galway city center Magdalene Laundry. In one instance, up to 30 Irish women escaped en masse from this Galway Magdalene Laundry.

03/29/2019
Khan Academy

Khan Academy

For #InternationalWomensDay we're celebrating these women who changed the world 👊🏼💪🏿✊🏾 (via Nobel Prize)

How Smart Were Neanderthals?
03/23/2019
How Smart Were Neanderthals?

How Smart Were Neanderthals?

Our extinct cousins have a lousy reputation that's being overturned by new discoveries.

02/26/2019
Atelier des Lumières

The Dreaming World of Tokyo

Après « Van Gogh, la nuit étoilée », découvrez « Japon rêvé, images du monde flottant », une création du studio Danny Rose, dédié au japon des maîtres de l'estampe 🎋 🌸

bit.ly/exposition-japon-rêvé

🎥 David Coignoux

Mass. Center for Native American Awareness (MCNAA)
02/24/2019

Mass. Center for Native American Awareness (MCNAA)

bs-p

02/14/2019
Irish History 1916 through to 1923

Irish History 1916 through to 1923

Probably one of the most difficult videos I have made for the page - This video is in memory of those who died and had to leave their homes and familes in Ireland during the deliberately caused Famine/Genocide by The British Empire.I attached a beauitful song Skibbereen which is a song written about the Famine and is a place in Co.Cork,it is sung by Sinead O Connor with The Chieftains so make sure your sound is turned up to hear the beautiful song

01/15/2019
American Experience | PBS

American Experience | PBS

Nothing could have prepared the fledgling U.S. Forest Service for the severity. Forest fires ripped through the Northern Rockies in 1910 and defined the nation’s fire policy for much of the twentieth century.

Catch THE BIG BURN on Jan. 22, only on PBS (check your local listings).

Irish Medieval History
12/18/2018

Irish Medieval History

HAPPY XMAS! – X is the abbreviation of the name Christ and has been in use since early Christian times. Many people nowadays are mistakenly of the opinion that the use of “Xmas” is a recent invention or a secular attempt to remove the religious tradition from Christmas by taking the "Christ" out of "Christmas. The practice of using contractions for divine or sacred names (Nomina sacra) started sometime in the 1st Century AD although the exact date remains unknown.

The ancient manuscript page in the photo is the Chi-Rho page from the Book of Lindisfarne, an Irish monastic foundation (c. 634AD) on a tidal island off the north east coast of England also known just as Holy Island. Note the distinctive long left leg on the Chi/X which is a style found also in the Book of Kells, Book of Durrow, St. Gallen Gospel Book, MacDurnan Gospels, the St Gall Gospels and many more.

'X' is an ancient abbreviation for the word 'Christ' which comes to us from ancient Greek and is written in the Greek alphabet ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (cristos) The first two letters are called Chi and Rho and were used to form one of the earliest Christograms, which is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ. Known as the Chi-Rho, it is even today used as a Christian symbol. The Christian Roman emperor Constantine I (b. 272AD) used it as a vexillum (military standard) which in turn was known then by the name Labarum. In contrast Irish manuscripts tend to use the first three letters in the monogram thus Chi-Rho-Iota. (see image)

Christ is not a surname/family name rather it is a title, meaning 'anointed'. The online etymological dictionary says of the word “Christ that it is “a title, treated as a proper name in Old English, but not regularly capitalized until 17c. Pronunciation with long -i- is result of Irish missionary work in England, 7c.-8c. The ch- form, regular since c.1500 in English, was rare before. Capitalization of the word begins 14c. but is not fixed until 17c. The 17c. mystical sect of the Familists edged it toward a verb with Christed "made one with Christ."

Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage (Merriam-Webster, 1994) states that, through the centuries, words like Christian, Christianity, christened, and Christopher were also written as Xtian, Xtianity, Xstened, and Xpofer. More recently we have added to this list Xbox, X-ray, Windows XP etc. (This last sentence is a bit of divelment!)

I always thought that the “mas” element in Xmas which should really be “mass” meant a crowd or a gathering but I was wrong. The word appears in Old English as mæsse, from Vulgar Latin “messa” which literally translates as "dismissal," from Late Latin missa "dismissal," fem. past participle of mittere "to let go, send" probably so called from the concluding words of the Eucharistic service, Ite, missa est, "Go, (the prayer) has been sent," or "Go, it is the dismissal." Sometimes glossed in Old English as sendnes "send-ness."

Ite, missa est were the last words of the mass until the reforms of 1962 when the words Gloria, Benedicamus Domino was said instead. Lutherans continue to use “ite, missa est” in the Divine Office and at the end of their Divine Service.

Can you make out the text?

In the Latin Vulgate the verse is "[Christi (XPI) autem generatio sic erat… [Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way…]

Sources
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Christmas
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=mass
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ite,_missa_est

#xmas #christmas #irish #medieval #medievalireland #history

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