Massachusetts Historical Society

Massachusetts Historical Society Founded in 1791, the Massachusetts Historical Society is an independent research library and an invaluable resource for American history, life, and culture.

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Do you like stories of people who go bravely into the face of danger? If so, then the third episode of The Object of His...
12/02/2021

Do you like stories of people who go bravely into the face of danger? If so, then the third episode of The Object of History podcast will be sure to entertain and enlighten you.

In episode 3, “The Relics of Nora Saltonstall,” MHS staff and experts look at the papers and artifacts of Nora Saltonstall, an adventurous young American who volunteered with the Red Cross in France during the First World War. As a driver for a mobile hospital unit, Saltonstall transported supplies and taxied wounded soldiers across the war front. For her services she received the Croix de Guerre—the highest honor given by the French government to volunteers. After returning safely to Boston in 1919, she embarked on a camping tour of national parks in the American West, where she met an unexpected fate.

Listen to this episode now on the website or wherever you regularly listen to your podcasts. https://bit.ly/3ruUw4F

#MHS1791 #ObjectOfHistoryPodcast #Podcast #ObjectOfHistory #Saltonstall
Image: Eleanor "Nora" Saltonstall in mountains holding a fish, Photographs, 4 July 1919. https://bit.ly/31nchIm

Do you like stories of people who go bravely into the face of danger? If so, then the third episode of The Object of History podcast will be sure to entertain and enlighten you.

In episode 3, “The Relics of Nora Saltonstall,” MHS staff and experts look at the papers and artifacts of Nora Saltonstall, an adventurous young American who volunteered with the Red Cross in France during the First World War. As a driver for a mobile hospital unit, Saltonstall transported supplies and taxied wounded soldiers across the war front. For her services she received the Croix de Guerre—the highest honor given by the French government to volunteers. After returning safely to Boston in 1919, she embarked on a camping tour of national parks in the American West, where she met an unexpected fate.

Listen to this episode now on the website or wherever you regularly listen to your podcasts. https://bit.ly/3ruUw4F

#MHS1791 #ObjectOfHistoryPodcast #Podcast #ObjectOfHistory #Saltonstall
Image: Eleanor "Nora" Saltonstall in mountains holding a fish, Photographs, 4 July 1919. https://bit.ly/31nchIm

New video available online! I Believe I'll Go Back Home: Roots and Revival in New England Folk Music, with Thomas Curren...
12/01/2021
Webinar: "I Believe I'll Go Back Home: Roots And Revival In New England Folk Music"

New video available online! I Believe I'll Go Back Home: Roots and Revival in New England Folk Music, with Thomas Curren.

Between 1959 and 1968, New England saw a folk revival emerge in more than fifty clubs and coffeehouses; a revolution led by college dropouts, young bohemians, and lovers of traditional music. From Club 47 in Harvard Square to candlelit venues in Amherst, musicians and audiences alike embraced folk music and progressive ideals. While the Folk Revival was short-lived, the youthful attention that it spurred played a crucial role in the emerging civil rights, world peace, and back-to-the-land movements. Thomas Curren traces a direct line from Yankee revolutionaries and nineteenth-century pacifists to the emergence of blues and rock 'n' roll, ultimately landing at the period of the folk revival.

#MHS1791 #Music #History #FolkMusic

-- Webinar recorded 23 November 2021 --Author: Thomas CurrenBetween 1959 and 1968, New England saw a folk revival emerge in more than fifty clubs and coffeeh...

What is your favorite name that you've discovered from the 18th century? One for us at the MHS, especially this past wee...
11/30/2021

What is your favorite name that you've discovered from the 18th century? One for us at the MHS, especially this past week, is Thankful Southwick. Read this Beehive blog to read more about Thankful and how an archivist found her in the archives of the MHS!
https://www.masshist.org/beehiveblog/2021/11/being-thankful/

#MHS1791 #Beehive #Blog #Thankful
Image: Thankful Southwick, photograph from the American abolitionists collection. https://www.masshist.org/database/1449

What is your favorite name that you've discovered from the 18th century? One for us at the MHS, especially this past week, is Thankful Southwick. Read this Beehive blog to read more about Thankful and how an archivist found her in the archives of the MHS!
https://www.masshist.org/beehiveblog/2021/11/being-thankful/

#MHS1791 #Beehive #Blog #Thankful
Image: Thankful Southwick, photograph from the American abolitionists collection. https://www.masshist.org/database/1449

New video available online! Introducing the "Object of History" Podcast, with Peter Drummey, Anne Bentley, Kanisorn Wong...
11/29/2021
Webinar: Introducing "The Object of History", MHS' Podcast

New video available online! Introducing the "Object of History" Podcast, with Peter Drummey, Anne Bentley, Kanisorn Wongsrichanalai, and Katy Morris.

MHS’s new podcast, the "Object of History" highlights our extraordinary collections that tell the story of America through millions of rare and unique documents, artifacts, and irreplaceable national treasures. Each episode of the podcast takes you on a behind the scenes tour of that vast collection. MHS staff experts and historians introduce you to fragile documents, unusual artifacts, and intriguing artworks that make the past come alive. This conversation is an introduction to the podcast with the producers and staff experts sharing highlights and talking about what was left on the cutting room floor.

Listen to the podcast at any time on the MHS website www.masshist.org/podcast or anywhere you listen to podcasts.

#MHS1791 #ObjectOfHistory #Podcast

-- Webinar recorded 16 November 2021 --Peter Drummey, Anne Bentley, Kanisorn Wongsrichanalai, Katy MorrisMHS’s new podcast, the Object of History highlights ...

Enjoy an artistic #OTDH from the Henry Adams watercolors and sketches collection! This piece is titled 'Entrance to Harb...
11/29/2021

Enjoy an artistic #OTDH from the Henry Adams watercolors and sketches collection!
This piece is titled 'Entrance to Harbor of Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Morning Light. 29 November 1895'
https://www.masshist.org/database/5860

#MHS1791 #AdamsPapers #Art #Watercolor

Enjoy an artistic #OTDH from the Henry Adams watercolors and sketches collection!
This piece is titled 'Entrance to Harbor of Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Morning Light. 29 November 1895'
https://www.masshist.org/database/5860

#MHS1791 #AdamsPapers #Art #Watercolor

While John Quincy Adams was appointed as Minister to Great Britain, he attended the marriage of Princess Charlotte of Wa...
11/26/2021

While John Quincy Adams was appointed as Minister to Great Britain, he attended the marriage of Princess Charlotte of Wales to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld on 2 May 1816. Queen Charlotte, the wife of King George III, was in attendance.

What did they eat at the wedding party after the ceremony? "There were refreshments served at a Side Board.— Cold Sandwiches—Wedding Cake—Limonade, Orange-water—Wines, and Ardent Spirits." https://bit.ly/3DKyUVd

#MHS1791 #AdamsPapers #NationalCakeDay
Image: 1818 engraving of the 1816 marriage between Princess Charlotte of Wales and Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

While John Quincy Adams was appointed as Minister to Great Britain, he attended the marriage of Princess Charlotte of Wales to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld on 2 May 1816. Queen Charlotte, the wife of King George III, was in attendance.

What did they eat at the wedding party after the ceremony? "There were refreshments served at a Side Board.— Cold Sandwiches—Wedding Cake—Limonade, Orange-water—Wines, and Ardent Spirits." https://bit.ly/3DKyUVd

#MHS1791 #AdamsPapers #NationalCakeDay
Image: 1818 engraving of the 1816 marriage between Princess Charlotte of Wales and Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

Today is the #NationalDayOfListening. It was launched in 2008 by StoryCorps, a NPO whose mission is to provide Americans...
11/26/2021

Today is the #NationalDayOfListening. It was launched in 2008 by StoryCorps, a NPO whose mission is to provide Americans of all beliefs and backgrounds to record, preserve, and share the stories of their lives.

You can share and preserve your story of your life during the Covid-19 pandemic in the digital MHS Covid-19 archive. https://bit.ly/3oTdWND

#MHS1791 #Covid19

Today is the #NationalDayOfListening. It was launched in 2008 by StoryCorps, a NPO whose mission is to provide Americans of all beliefs and backgrounds to record, preserve, and share the stories of their lives.

You can share and preserve your story of your life during the Covid-19 pandemic in the digital MHS Covid-19 archive. https://bit.ly/3oTdWND

#MHS1791 #Covid19

Happy Thanksgiving! The MHS has many documents of early American days of Thanksgiving, which were proclaimed by civil & ...
11/25/2021

Happy Thanksgiving! The MHS has many documents of early American days of Thanksgiving, which were proclaimed by civil & religious authorities as a day of fasting and prayer. https://bit.ly/2ZelzFE

The "First Thanksgiving" was more of a feast celebrating good harvest and was celebrated with Massasoit, the leader of the Wampanoag Nation. MHS collections/Native People: https://bit.ly/30NHSmE and Wampanoag Plimoth Patuxet Museums https://bit.ly/30ZEG7c.

#MHS1791 #Thanksgiving
Image: A Map of New-England, 1677 https://bit.ly/3E5qacJ

Happy Thanksgiving! The MHS has many documents of early American days of Thanksgiving, which were proclaimed by civil & religious authorities as a day of fasting and prayer. https://bit.ly/2ZelzFE

The "First Thanksgiving" was more of a feast celebrating good harvest and was celebrated with Massasoit, the leader of the Wampanoag Nation. MHS collections/Native People: https://bit.ly/30NHSmE and Wampanoag Plimoth Patuxet Museums https://bit.ly/30ZEG7c.

#MHS1791 #Thanksgiving
Image: A Map of New-England, 1677 https://bit.ly/3E5qacJ

An MHS Library Assistant follows her instincts while looking in penmanship books in the latest Beehive blog: Penmanship....
11/24/2021

An MHS Library Assistant follows her instincts while looking in penmanship books in the latest Beehive blog: Penmanship...and the Revolution?

Follow her journey through children's penmanship books to find the American Revolution: https://bit.ly/3cGQoWL

#MHS1791

An MHS Library Assistant follows her instincts while looking in penmanship books in the latest Beehive blog: Penmanship...and the Revolution?

Follow her journey through children's penmanship books to find the American Revolution: https://bit.ly/3cGQoWL

#MHS1791

Update on National History Day MA up now on the Beehive blog. What new resources have staff at the MHS created for #Nati...
11/23/2021

Update on National History Day MA up now on the Beehive blog. What new resources have staff at the MHS created for #NationalHistoryDay students? Read all about it here: https://bit.ly/3oSp3Xe

#MHS1791 #Beehive #Blog #NationalHistoryDayMA2022

Update on National History Day MA up now on the Beehive blog. What new resources have staff at the MHS created for #NationalHistoryDay students? Read all about it here: https://bit.ly/3oSp3Xe

#MHS1791 #Beehive #Blog #NationalHistoryDayMA2022

Happy Birthday Abigail Adams!From the diary of John Quincy Adams, “My Mother was an Angel upon Earth— She was a Minister...
11/22/2021

Happy Birthday Abigail Adams!

From the diary of John Quincy Adams, “My Mother was an Angel upon Earth— She was a Minister of blessing to all human beings within her sphere of action. Her heart was the abode of heavenly purity. She had no feelings but of kindness and beneficence— Yet her mind was as firm as her temper was mild and gentle” 1 November, 1818.
http://bitly.ws/jFQI

#MHS1791 #AdamsPapers #AbigailAdams #JohnQuincyAdams #HappyBirthday
Image: Abigail Adams (Mrs. John Adams), oil on canvas by unidentified artist after Gilbert Stuart, between 1800 and 1814. https://bit.ly/3CJu5Kq

Happy Birthday Abigail Adams!

From the diary of John Quincy Adams, “My Mother was an Angel upon Earth— She was a Minister of blessing to all human beings within her sphere of action. Her heart was the abode of heavenly purity. She had no feelings but of kindness and beneficence— Yet her mind was as firm as her temper was mild and gentle” 1 November, 1818.
http://bitly.ws/jFQI

#MHS1791 #AdamsPapers #AbigailAdams #JohnQuincyAdams #HappyBirthday
Image: Abigail Adams (Mrs. John Adams), oil on canvas by unidentified artist after Gilbert Stuart, between 1800 and 1814. https://bit.ly/3CJu5Kq

Reminder to join First Ladies Association for Research and  Education - FLARE tonight at 5:30 PM for a discussion with D...
11/22/2021

Reminder to join First Ladies Association for Research and Education - FLARE tonight at 5:30 PM for a discussion with Dr. Sara Martin, editor in chief of The Adams Papers, and Dr. Catherine Allgor, president of the MHS for a discussion on Abigail Adams.

#MHS1791 #TheAdamsPapers #AbigailAdams

On Monday, 22 November, at 5:30 pm, join moderator, MHS President, Dr. Catherine Allgor, and speaker, Editor-in-Chief of The Adams Papers, Dr. Sara Martin, for Abigail Adams and the "Reigns of Government," with First Ladies Association for Research and Education - FLARE.

Abigail Adams is perhaps best known for her 1776 call to “Remember the Ladies.” Among the thousands of words she penned during her life, why is it this phrase that continues to resonate? Hear Martin and Allgor explore Adams's thoughts on government and women's role in society.

To watch this event, go here: https://youtu.be/gT9GdlK1zSo

#MHS1791 #AdamsPapers

Happy 277th Birthday, Abigail Adams! In 1838, the MHS asked Abigail Adams's grandson, Charles Francis Adams, to speak ab...
11/22/2021

Happy 277th Birthday, Abigail Adams!

In 1838, the MHS asked Abigail Adams's grandson, Charles Francis Adams, to speak about the second First Lady, and his grandmother, to an audience of Bostonians. He asked his Father, John Quincy Adams, for permission to use the family papers, which was granted.

"Abigail Adams’s nature fascinated Charles, and he shared that awe with his audience for at least two hours. He wondered aloud: How did she balance private emotion and public duty? And what might studying other women’s lives reveal to Americans about the “revolutionary spirit”? He did not include her eloquent plea to “Remember the Ladies,” but he certainly kept her message intact."

Read more in this Beehive blog: https://bit.ly/3DItk5V
#MHS1791 #AbigailAdams #CharlesFrancisAdams #AdamsPapers #HappyBirthday

Happy 277th Birthday, Abigail Adams!

In 1838, the MHS asked Abigail Adams's grandson, Charles Francis Adams, to speak about the second First Lady, and his grandmother, to an audience of Bostonians. He asked his Father, John Quincy Adams, for permission to use the family papers, which was granted.

"Abigail Adams’s nature fascinated Charles, and he shared that awe with his audience for at least two hours. He wondered aloud: How did she balance private emotion and public duty? And what might studying other women’s lives reveal to Americans about the “revolutionary spirit”? He did not include her eloquent plea to “Remember the Ladies,” but he certainly kept her message intact."

Read more in this Beehive blog: https://bit.ly/3DItk5V
#MHS1791 #AbigailAdams #CharlesFrancisAdams #AdamsPapers #HappyBirthday

New video available online!Disability Activism: A Historical Perspective from Some of the Leading Activists in Massachus...
11/19/2021
Webinar: Disability & the American Past, Program 4 - Disability Activism: A Historical Perspective

New video available online!

Disability Activism: A Historical Perspective from Some of the Leading Activists in Massachusetts, with Heather Watkins, Charlie Carr, Keith Jones, John Chappell , Fred Pelka and moderator Malia Lazu.

The disabilities rights movement, like many rights movements, has been complex, coming from a variety of different perspectives, but at its heart, it has been a movement for justice, equal opportunities and reasonable accommodations. Massachusetts has played a unique role in this struggle and this conversation will aim to introduce the story of disability activism in Massachusetts. Our panel includes current activists and historians of this movement. Through a moderated, roundtable discussion, our panelists will explore their experiences, their inspirations, the history of the movement and what they hope to see in the future of disability activism.

#MHS1791 #DisabilityAndTheAmericanPast

-- Webinar recorded 27 October 2021 --Disability Activism: A Historical Perspective from Some of the Leading Activists in MassachusettsHeather Watkins, Charl...

New video available online!The 2020 virtual Research Conference keynote was postponed until 2021. It took place in Octob...
11/19/2021
2020 Research Conference - Retrospective Keynote: Looking Back at Sesquicentennial and Centennial

New video available online!

The 2020 virtual Research Conference keynote was postponed until 2021. It took place in October as a Retrospective Keynote: Looking Back at Sesquicentennial & Centennial with Alison M. Parker, University of Delaware; Lisa Tetrault, Carnegie Mellon University; and moderator Alex Keyssar, Harvard University.
https://youtu.be/MGZfnIATv8Q
Learn more about the 2020 conference here: https://www.masshist.org/research/conferences
#MHS1791

Looking Back at the Sesquicentennial and the Centennial: How Far Has Research on the 15th and 19th Amendments Come?-- Webinar recorded 6 November 2021 --Alis...

#OTDH in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg Address. Want to learn more about the Civil War? MHS...
11/19/2021

#OTDH in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg Address. Want to learn more about the Civil War? MHS has many primary sources to see in the archives and collection. Start here: https://bit.ly/3FB20XP and here: https://bit.ly/3qSW7RJ.
#54thRegiment #CivilWar #MHS1791
Image: Private Charles A. Smith, Tintype, circa 1880. https://bit.ly/3cqKYPA

#OTDH in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg Address. Want to learn more about the Civil War? MHS has many primary sources to see in the archives and collection. Start here: https://bit.ly/3FB20XP and here: https://bit.ly/3qSW7RJ.
#54thRegiment #CivilWar #MHS1791
Image: Private Charles A. Smith, Tintype, circa 1880. https://bit.ly/3cqKYPA

As the MHS resumes fee-based programming, it pays to be a Member and enjoy free access! A donation to the MHS Fund is yo...
11/18/2021

As the MHS resumes fee-based programming, it pays to be a Member and enjoy free access! A donation to the MHS Fund is your gateway to Membership. As part of the benefits, Members will have exclusive entry to the "Our Favorite Things" exhibition this December. Please give generously and receive a multitude of fun!

https://bit.ly/3DkH0Uq

#MHS1791 #Philanthropy #Give

As the MHS resumes fee-based programming, it pays to be a Member and enjoy free access! A donation to the MHS Fund is your gateway to Membership. As part of the benefits, Members will have exclusive entry to the "Our Favorite Things" exhibition this December. Please give generously and receive a multitude of fun!

https://bit.ly/3DkH0Uq

#MHS1791 #Philanthropy #Give

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1154 Boylston St
Boston, MA
02215

General information

Founded in 1791, the Massachusetts Historical Society is an invaluable resource for American history, life, and culture. Its extraordinary collections tell the story of America through millions of rare and unique documents, artifacts, and national treasures, including the personal papers of three presidents—John Adams, John Quincy Adams, and Thomas Jefferson. Through its research library, online resources, publications, exhibitions, and programs, the MHS makes its holdings accessible to anyone with an interest in the people and events that shaped our country. As the nation’s first historical society, the MHS strives to enhance the understanding of our nation’s past and its connection to the present, demonstrating that history is not just a series of events that happened to individuals long ago but is integral to the fabric of our daily lives.

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On December 1, 1785, an elderly formerly enslaved woman "Received from Mr. Wm. Erving the Sum of two pounds two shillings [Sterling?] upon acc't of Mrs. Mary Erving." The woman we now refer to as Belinda Sutton—the name she called herself in petitions for a pension from the estate of Mary Erving's deceased father, Isaac Royall Jr.—was apparently enslaved by the Royalls from her kidnapping as a girl in what is now Ghana in about 1725 until Royall's death in 1781. In February 1783, in response to her petition, the Massachusetts legislature granted an annual pension of fifteen pounds twelve shillings to Belinda and her "more infirm daughter," to be paid from Royall's estate, which had been confiscated because of his allegiance to the British crown. At the time of the transfer shown here, more than two years later, she had received just one year's pension allocation. In her fifth and final petition in 1793, Belinda Sutton notes that she had received only two payments of her annual pension in ten years, and "That upon her applying to Sir Wm Pepperell one of the Heirs of said Royal’s Estate, he has hitherto made her some allowances, but now refuses to allow her any more." Pepperrell was the widower of Isaac Royall's other daughter, Elizabeth. Belinda adds that "she is now much in debt, & being aged & infirm she cannot support herself by labour." In 1799 his executors petitioned the legislature, reminding them that although most of Isaac Royall's estate had since been returned to his heirs, "a Sum of money however remained in the treasury of the commonwealth—intended to provide for the support of two family servants who were left behind & to prevent their becoming public incumbrances. As the last of said family servants is now dead," they asked that the balance revert to the family. We assume Belinda Sutton was one of those two "servants," and wonder if her daughter was the other. Sincere thanks to the Massachusetts Historical Society for saving this little treasure in their collection of David Greenough Papers 1631-1859.
Hello I am in possession of an object that I would like to know more about with an eye towards donating it to the appropriate institution or group. An ex-colleague of mine was cleaning out her basement and said that this piece was retrieved from Boston harbor by her late husband in a fishing net many years ago. She was told that it may be an 18th century deck gun mount that perhaps had been pushed over the side because of a fire (there appears to be fire damage on it) Please let me know if anyone on this site would be interested or may have a suggestion as to whom may be. I am in Bourne Thanks much Herman Gustafson
#OTD in 1755 an earthquake off the shore of Cape Ann rocked Boston and the surrounding areas. Massachusetts Historical Society recently featured a document inspired by that event for their object of the month: https://bit.ly/2ZlbeIj Perhaps the almost 21 yr old Paul Revere read the original? In her last #RevereHouseRadio before departing, Adrienne Turnbull-Reilly mentioned the Earthquake of 1755 in her episode called “Extreme Weather for Paul Revere” https://apple.co/3D80snL take a listen if you haven’t yet!
In-person reservations are sold out but there is a waiting list and more tickets may be released. You can also register to watch a virtual version of the production. Link in comments. The Patriot Ledger Associates of the Boston Public Library #ONWARD #WomanSuffrage #equalityforwomen #thewomenshour Women's Suffrage Celebration Coalition of Massachusetts, Inc. Massachusetts Historical Society Boston Women's Heritage Trail Boston National Historical Park Abigail Adams Historical Society
Stephen A. Swails was a Black American hero who was previously erased from historical narratives. In this Massachusetts Historical Society webinar, Gordon C. Rhea discusses his new LSU Press book, a biography of Swails that tells his incredible story: https://bit.ly/3D38sps
Kent Cottage presentation tonight 7p https://bcattv.org/learn-about-the-historic-kent-cottage-with-special-presentation/ Massachusetts Historical Society Lexington Historical Society Woburn Historical Commission #BurlingtonMA
Want to learn about an important, previously erased figure of history? Tonight, Gordon C. Rhea will discuss his new book, "Stephen A. Swails: Black Freedom Fighter" at a virtual Massachusetts Historical Society event! Register now: https://bit.ly/2ZyWnJG
AAS is cosponsoring this series of events hosted by the Massachusetts Historical Society exploring the field of disability history. The series concludes this week with programs on the history of disability activism and analogies of disabled life in African American writings. These events are free and open to the public and will be hosted virtually via Zoom. Find out more and register at: https://www.masshist.org/calendar/series/disability #disabilityhist #disabilityhistory
For #AmericanArchivesMonth we've been featuring partner institutions that collectively have helped us build the Theodore Roosevelt Digital Library into the resource it is today. Next up are our friends at Massachusetts Historical Society who have donated hundreds of photos, letters, postcards and other archival items related to Theodore Roosevelt. Explore them here: http://ow.ly/4Evq50GxykU
BIG Boston Red Sox game tonight but what about Boston's mystery ball park? "It's Also History" finds old Lincoln Park Massachusetts Historical Society National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum Ken Burns Lexington Historical Society Woburn Historical Society #BurlingtonMA
Ep2 of "Presidential Crises" looks at James & Dolley Madison & the 1814 Burning of Washington. For more great history after you listen, check out the work of the Massachusetts Historical Society, James Madison's Montpelier, and the The Dolley Madison Papers, and read books by our guests Dr. Catherine Allgor (Massachusetts Historical Society) & Dr. Troy Bickham (Texas A&M University).
Ep2 of PRESIDENTIAL CRISES is LIVE today - "James & Dolley Madison and the Burning of Washington." By any definition, having your capital burned by foreign troops ranks as a crisis! So, how did the U.S. get into this crisis-the War of 1812? How did President Madison handle it, leading the nation in its first full war after independence? And what role did First Lady Dolley Madison play in the crisis. We're joined by two excellent scholars of the crisis: Troy Bickham (Texas A&M University) and Catherine Allgor (Massachusetts Historical Society). Please continue to listen, subscribe and share! https://pastpromisepresidency.com/season-2/episode31-madisons-washington-burning