Jamaican Music -The Full Story (1951-Present)

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Jamaican Music -The Full Story (1951-Present) INFORMATION, ARTISTS, VIDEOS, SONGS & EVENTS THROUGHOUT THE AGES. Mento was a fantastic combination of African and European folk dances that made us dance.

▌│█│║▌║││█║▌║▌║ Verified ☑©Official Page© ® ©Profile Official© ® ✔Verified by Facebook ۩ Facebook V.I.P ACCOUNT ۩ Reggae music history dates back to 1951 when Jamaica opened its first recording studio ever and the first recorded music was Mento. Jamaica became a paradise of some peppy rhythms. Especially when disc jockeys brought out the real charm of this music.

1960 The New Reggae Bea

In 1960 the Kingston area embraced and celebrated reggae music. The town's local bands started playing reggae music from musical combination of pan-African beats, American R&B and the other Caribbean island's tunes that had drummers emphasizing on the afterbeat. The beat where the 2nd as well as the 4th beat came almost together using a piano and a guitar as the bass remained with the walking quarter tones, the whole concoction was termed as Upside-down R&B. Soon this Upside down R&B cam to be known as Ska. Over time the beat of Ska slowed, while the brass sound was lost. This resulted into another variation called Rocksteady, a form of music created using less number of musicians but more number of harmony vocals. In 1968 the influences of Africanism and Rastafarian along with existing social and political unrest in Jamaica gave rise to the authentic reggae that you listen to today. The beat is a little slower and not sounding like Pop music, because of the addition of a 3rd beat. International Release of Reggae
An independent brand, named Island, located in the UK, distributed reggae music records throughout the UK in the 1960s. However reggae became widely known in the UK only when Al Capone by Prince Buster was released in 1967. This started a short but crazy dance style. During these times Jamaican music was associated more with our ghettos and often with gang violence. This changed for the better when Jimmy Cliff came with his melodious Wonderful World Beautiful People in 1969 and reggae was now associated more with love and peace. Rudolph Redwood
This Jamaican disc-jockey, Rudolph Redwood, began recording a lot of instrumental songs of several reggae hits. He experimented with them in his own dance club and this further boosted the ever increasing popularity of reggae music. Reggae Music History
Finally reggae music became unimaginably popular with excellent songs composed or sung by Bob Marley with his influential and inspiring voice such as Stir It Up in 1972 and No Woman No Cry in 1974. Theophilus Beckford cut the first "ska" record, Easy Snapping, in 1959, but Prince Buster (Cecil Campbell), owner of the sound system "Voice of the People", was the one who, around 1961, defined ska's somatic traits once and forever (he and his guitarist Jah Jerry). The Wailers, featuring the young Bob Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Livingston, slowed down the beat in Simmer Down (1963). Millie Small's My Boy Lollipop (1964) was the first worldwide ska hit. The charismatic leaders of the ska movement were the Skatalites, a group of veteran ex-jazzmen led by saxophonist Tommy McCook and featuring virtuoso trombonist Don Drummond and tenor saxophonist Rolando Alphonso, that formally existed only between 1964 and 1965 (Ball O' Fire, 1965; Phoenix City, 1966; the instrumental Guns Of Navarone, 1967), but ska's star was Desmond Dekker (Dacres), whose Israelites (1968) launched the even faster "poppa-top", and whose 007 Shanty Town (1967) and Rude Boy Train fueled the mythology of the "rude boy". Ska music was relatively serene and optimist, a natural soundtrack to that age of peace and wealth, somewhat akin to the music of the "swinging London

Jamaica had become an independent country in 1962, but social problems had multiplied. During the mid Sixties, ska music evolved into "rock steady", a languid style, named after Alton Ellis' hit Rock Steady (1966), that emphasized sociopolitical themes, adopted electric instruments, replaced the horns with the guitars, and promoted the bass to lead instrument (virtually obliterating the drums). In other words, ska mutated under the influence of soul music. Rock steady was identified with the crowd of young delinquents (the "rude boys") who mimicked the British "mods" and the American "punks". Its generational anthems were Judge Dread (1967) by Prince Buster, John Holt's The Tide Is High (1966) by the Paragons, Rivers Of Babylon (1969) by the Melodians. The music took the back seat to the vocal harmonies. This helped bring about the supremacy of vocal groups: Wailers, Paragons, Maytals (the new name of the Vikings of the ska hit Halleluja, 1963), Pioneers, Melodians, Heptones, etc

The word "reggae" was coined around 1960 in Jamaica to identify a "ragged" style of dance music, that still had its roots in New Orleans rhythm'n'blues. However, reggae soon acquired the lament-like style of chanting and emphasized the syncopated beat. It also made explicit the relationship with the underworld of the "Rastafarians" (adepts of a millenary African faith, revived Marcus Garvey who advocated a mass emigration back to Africa), both in the lyrics and in the appropriation of the African nyah-bingi drumming style (a style that mimicks the heartbeat with its pattern of "thump-thump, pause, thump-thump"). Compared with rock music, reggae music basically inverted the role of bass and guitar: the former was the lead, the latter beat the typical hiccupping pattern. The paradox of reggae, of course, is that this music "unique to Jamaica" is actually not Jamaican at all, having its foundations in the USA and Africa. An independent label, Island, distributed Jamaican records in the UK throughout the 1960s, but reggae became popular in the UK only when Prince Buster's Al Capone (1967) started a brief "dance craze". Jamaican music was very much a ghetto phenomenon, associated with gang-style violence, but Jimmy Cliff's Wonderful World Beautiful People (1969) wed reggae with the "peace and love" philosophy of the hippies, an association that would not die away. In the USA, Neil Diamond's Red Red Wine (1967) was the first reggae hit by a pop musician. Shortly afterwards, Johnny Nash's Hold Me Tight (1968) propelled reggae onto the charts. Do The Reggay (1968) by T***s (Hibbert) And The Maytals was the record that gave the music its name. Fredrick T***s Hibbert's vocal style was actually closer to gospel, as proved by their other hits (54-46, 1967; Monkey Man, 1969; Pressure Drop, 1970). A little noticed event would have far-reaching consequences: in 1967, the Jamaican disc-jockey Rudolph "Ruddy" Redwood had begun recording instrumental versions of reggae hits. The success of his dance club was entirely due to that idea. Duke Reid, who was now the owner of the Trojan label, was the first one to capitalize on the idea: he began releasing singles with two sides: the original song and, on the back, the instrumental remix. This phenomenon elevated the status of dozens of recording engineers. Reggae music was mainly popularized by Bob Marley (1), first as the co-leader of the Wailers, the band that promoted the image of the urban guerrilla with Rude Boy (1966) and that cut the first album of reggae music, Best Of The Wailers (1970); and later as the political and religious (rasta) guru of the movement, a stance that would transform him into a star, particularly after his conversion to pop-soul melody with ballads such as Stir It Up (1972), I Shot The Sheriff (1973) and No Woman No Cry (1974). Among the reggae vocal groups, the Abyssinians' Satta Massa Gana (1971) is representative of the mood of the era. In 1972 reggae became a staple of western radio stations thanks to the film The Harder They Come. More and more studio engineers were re-mixing B-sides of reggae 45 RPM singles, dropping out the vocals and emphasizing the instrumental texture of the song. The purpose was to allow disc-jockeys to "toast" over the record. Engineers became more and more skilled at refining the instrumental textures, especially when they began to employ sophisticated studio devices. Eventually, "dub" became an art on its own. The first dub singles appeared in 1971, but the man generally credited with "inventing" the genre is Osbourne Ruddock, better known as King Tubby (2), a recording engineer who in 1970 had accidentally discovered the appeal of stripping a song of its vocal track, and who engineered the first dub record, Carl Patterson's Psalm Of Dub (1971). When he got together with producer Lee "Scratch" Perry, Blackboard Jungle (1973) was born: the first stereo "dub" album. It was a Copernican revolution: the engineer and the producer had become more important than the composer. It also marked the terminal point of the "slowing down" of Jamaican music, a process that had led from ska to reggae to rock steady. Compared with the original, dub was like a slow-motion version. a collaboration with melodica player Augustus Pablo led to another seminal work, King Tubby Meets Rockers Uptown (1976). Rainford Hugh Perry, better known as Lee "Scratch" Perry (3), who had nursed the Wailers, pretty much set the reference standard for generations to come with Double Seven (1974), the first reggae album that overdubbed synthesizers, Revolution Dub (1975) and Super Ape (1976), one of the genre's masterpieces. Melodica virtuoso Augustus Pablo (2), aka Horace Swaby, penned the instrumental albums This Is Augustus Pablo (1973) and East of the River Nile (1977), two of the most atmospheric works of the genre. Talk OVER
"Rapping" originated from the complementary tradition of the "talk-over". The disc-jockeys of the sound systems used to accompany the dance tracks with impromptu melodic and spoken-word vocals, often simply to add enthusiasm to the dance. This eventually became an art in itself. U-Roy (Edwart Beckford) was possibly the first great talk-over artist, the man who turned dub into a highly-effective vehicle for agit-prop messages (Dynamic Fashion Way, 1969; Runaway Girl, 1976; Wake the Town, Wear You to the Ball). Other pioneers of rapping were Dennis "Alcapone" Smith, with Forever Version (1971), Prince Jazzbo and I Roy. Big Youth (Manley Buchanan) upped the ante with his wild sociopolitical raps (S-90 Skank, 1972; The Killer, 1973; House Of Dread Locks, 1975; Every Ni**er Is A Star, 1976), most effectively on Dreadlocks Dread (1975). Originally, the technique of these "toaster" consisted in remixing other people's songs, removing the original vocals, emphasizing the rhythmic base, and overdubbing their own rhyming stories on the resulting track. . As reggae became a world attraction, styles multiplied and in**ed with the American genres. Burning Spear (1), the project of Rastafarian visionary Winston Rodney, unleashed the supercharged Marcus Garvey (1976), perhaps the highest artistic achievements of reggae music. Joseph Hill's vocal trio Culture were equally passionate, and the title-track from Two Sevens Clash (1977) became the anthem of the rasta-punks and coined "rockers reggae". Ijahman Levi (Trevor Sutherland) was perhaps the most spiritual vocalist of his generation. His songs were religious hymns (Jah Heavy Lord, 1975; I'm A Levi, 1978; Are We A Warrior, 1978). Ex-Wailers Peter Tosh, or Winston Hubert McIntosh, crossed over into rock territory with Legalize It (1976). Other popular classics include Junior Marvin's Police And Thieves (1976) and Gregory Isaacs' Love Is Overdue (1974). Jamaican revival in Britain

Reggae and ska enjoyed a major revival in Britain during the punk age. Starting in the mid-1970s, ensembles such as Aswad, Steel Pulse, Matumbi and UB40 offered a westernized version of Jamaican music that was rather uninspired, but were lucky enough that the audience found affinities with the implicit protest themes of the political punks. At the same time, British sensations of the ska revival included Specials and Madness. British dub music was a more serious affair, and took longer to emerge. But, over the long term, it was dub music, and not ska or reggae music, that stuck around, thanks to the quality productions of Adrian Sherwood (the brain behind African Headcharge, Dub Syndicate and New Age Steppers), Jah Shaka and prolific Guyana-born Neil Fraser, better known as Mad Professor, who penned Beyond the Realms Of Dub (1982), and even Aswad's own New Chapter of Dub (1982). Artistic peaks were reached by dub pioneer and experimentalist Keith Hudson, with Pick A Dub (1976), and instrumental soundpainter Dennis Bovell (a former member of Matumbi, an engineer who coined the soul-reggae fusion called "Lovers Rock"), with Strictly Dubwise (1978), I Wah Dub (1980), probably his most intense release, and Brain Damage (1981), a cosmopolitan work that also mixed calypso, rock and funk. Linton Kwesi Johnson, a Jamaican poet living in England, transposed reggae's mood into dub-based sermons, arranged by Dennis Bovell, on the contemporary issues of the lumperproletariat. Ditto for the other poet of dub, Mutabaruka. These dub poets were as musical as their producers managed to be. Kwesi owed a lot to Bovell. Jamaican music in the 1980s
Vocal trio Black Uhuru, supported by the rhythm section of Sly Dunbar and Robbie Shakespeare, wrapped reggae and Rastafarianism into a slick production of drum-machines and synthesizers, especially on Red (1981). Third World offered a commercial fusion of reggae, funk and soul. Innovators of the next generation included toaster and turntablist Yellowman (Winston Foster), a pioneer of "dancehall" (reggae music with rock drums) who established his reputation with Mister Yellowman (1982), crossover artists such as Eddy Grant, with the electronic Afro-rock-reggae-funk fusion of Walking on Sunshine (1979), Eek-a-Mouse (Ripton Joseph Hylton), who invented a unique vocal technique that harked back to the early days of toasting, as displayed on Wa Do Dem (1982), and Mikey Dread (Michael Campbell), who crafted African Anthem/ At The Control Dubwise (1979), with help from Scientist, King Tubby, Augustus Pablo and Sly & Robbie, and World War III (1981), with help from Scientist, after collaborating with the punk-rock band Clash. As far as dub goes, King Tubby raised an entire generation of recording engineers, who went on to become innovators of Jamaican music, such as Prince Jammy (Lloyd James), who concocted the all-digital reggae Under Me Sleng Teng (1985), credited with inventing "ragga" (a fusion of reggae, rap and electronic dance music), and Scientist (Overton Brown). Popular reggae musicians of the 1980s included Judy Mowatt, who, as a backup vocalist for Marley, was one of reggae's first female performers, and, as a soloist, crossed over into pop-soul balladry, Ivory Coast's sociopolitical bard Alpha Blondy (Kone Seydou), and David "Ziggy" Marley, son of the prophet, who sold out his father's myth to the international disco-pop crowds. Dancehall toaster Shabba Ranks (Rexton Gordon) and Shinehead (Carl Aiken) were the stars of ragga hip-hop. The star of the 1990s was Buju Banton (Mark Anthony Myrie), revealed by Til Shiloh (1995). King Tubbys ~Osbourne Ruddock, better known as King Tubby, started his own sound system "Home Town Hi-Fi') in 1968, which the following year added disc-jockey U Roy (Edwart Beckford). While Tubby was working as a recording engineer, he accidentally discovered the appeal of stripping a song of its vocal track. Carl Patterson's Psalm Of Dub (1971) was the first dub record. In 1972 Ruddock bought a two-track tape recorder and experimented with reverb and other effects. During the next two years, Tubby perfected his home studio recording, particularly with and echo delay device. In 1974, Tubby started a collaboration with Bunny Lee that led to his most inspired productions, The Roots of Dub and Dub From The Roots. Tubby mostly improvised at the mixing board, as if it were an instrument. His remixing work became more and more radical, leaving almost nothing of the original song. a collaboration with melodica player Augustus Pablo led to the hit Baby I Love You (1975) and another seminal work, King Tubby Meets Rockers Uptown (1976). Tubby raised an entire generation of recording engineers, who went one to become innovators of Jamaican music, such as Prince Jammy (Lloyd James), soon to become a trendy producer, and Scientist (Overton Brown). King Tubby was murdered in 1989. LEE PERRY

Rainford Hugh Perry, better known as Lee "Scratch" Perry, had been running his own label, Upsetter, since 1968, composed several hits (People Funny Boy, 1968) and was the producer who nursed the Wailers between 1969 and 1973, contributing to the worldwide success of Bob Marley. Perry (using his own name or the monikers Jah Lion, Pipecock Jakxon, Super Ape, Upsetter, Scratch) specialized in languid and trippy instrumental themes, sometimes echoing Ennio Morricone's soundtracks, such as The Upsetter (1968), The Return Of Django (1969), Clint Eastwood. Then he met King Tubby and together they recorded Blackboard Jungle (1973), the first stereo dub album. Perry pretty much set the reference standard for generations of dub musicians to come with Double Seven (1974), the first reggae album that overdubbed synthesizers, Revolution Dub (1975) and Super Ape (1976), one of the genre's masterpieces. Mentally unstable and addicted to drugs, Perry continued to be in demand as a producer but never matched his creative apex again. AUGUSTUS PABLO

Augustus Pablo, aka Horace Swaby, was a sort of Milton Jackson of reggae's melodica, as proven with Java (1969), Iggy Iggy (1969), East Of The River Nile (1969), Lovers Mood, Hot And Cold, and many others. Pablo played different keyboard instruments on his first milestone recording, the instrumental album This Is Augustus Pablo (1973), and perfected his style on Ital Dub (1975). a collaboration with King Tubby led to the hit Baby I Love You (1975) and the seminal album King Tubby Meets Rockers Uptown (1976), which is mostly devoted to dub versions of Pablo's compositions. East of the River Nile (1977) was probably is most daring sonic experiment. Subsequent productions, such as Earth's Rightful Ruler (1983), which adds vocals to his instrumental textures, were relatively mediocre. Jah Inspiration (Recall) is a double-disc anthology. Pablo died in 1999. BURNING SPEAR

Burning Spear was originally the project of Rastafarian visionary Winston Rodney. After his first single (Door Peep), it expanded to a trio and went on to become one of Jamaica's most successful acts with hits such as Joe Frazier (1972). Burning Spear's early albums Studio One Presents Burning Spear (1973) and Rocking Time (1974) were full of references to Ethiopia and Zion. The hits Marcus Garvey and Slavery Days opened the golden age, crowned with one of reggae's all-time masterpieces, Marcus Garvey (1976), on which he was backed by the Black Disciples. The power and the passion of that album, that relied on hypnotic polyrhythms and sinister vocals, was watered down on the dub remix Garvey's Ghost (1976). Rodney matured with the sermon of Travelling, Spear Burning, The Youth. Then he simply cruised into the international jetset with Man in the Hills (1977), containing The Lion, Dry and Heavy (1977), basically a solo Rodney project, Social Living (1978), backed by British combo Aswad, the "lost" album Hail HIM (1980), backed by the Wailers. A living icon, he adopted a new backing group, the Burning Band, and embarked in a new series of impeccable (if somewhat inconclusive) recordings: Farover (1982), with Jah Is My Driver, The Fittest of the Fittest (1983), with the title-track, Resistance (1984), one of his strongest sets although still a far cry from his most innovative work, People of the World (1986), and Mistress Music (1988), the last two being also the most densely arranged, highlighted by virtuoso playing. Burning Spear continued to release predictable collections of pop-jazz-reggae muzak, rarely creative but always professional: Mek We Dweet (1990), Jah Kingdom (1991), The World Should Know (1993), Rasta Business (1995), Appointment With His Majesty, Calling Rastafari (1999), Freeman, etc


Winston Hubert McIntosh, better known as Peter Tosh (baritone singer in the Wailers), was an authentic product of the Jamaican ghettos. His pride was already evident in I'm The Toughest (1966). His early singles Crimson Pirate (1969), Sun Valley (1969), Pepper Seed (1969), The Return of Al Capone (1969), Selassie Serenade (1969) were influenced by psychedelic music. His solo career took off in 1971 with Maga Dog, basically a rewrite of the Wailer's Simmer Down. A long series of singles, that included Them Ha Fe Get a Beating (1972), Arise Blackman (1971), Black Dignity (1970), Here Comes the Judge (1971), No Mercy (1972), Dog Teeth (1973), Mark of the Beast (1973), Can't Blame the Youth (1974), Foundation, Whatcha Gonna Do (1975), Ketchy Shrub (1977), peaked with Legalize It (1974). This led to his first solo album, Legalize It (1976), which crossed over into rock music with Why Must I Cry, Til Your Well Runs Dry and Burial, and to its twin release Equal Rights (1977), featuring the rhythm section of Sly & Robbie and containing Stepping Razor and Equal Rights. He returned to his reggae roots with Bush Doctor (1978). Mystic Man (1979), including Rumours of War and Jah Seh No, and the successful singles Buk-In-Hamm Palace (1980), Bombo Klaat (1980) and Nothing but Love could not hide his problems. In the end, Tosh was becoming more famous for his troubles than for his music. After Mama Africa (1981), it took six years for Tosh to recover enough to record No Nuclear War (1987). He was murdered a few months later

Adrian Sherwood
Adrian Sherwood is one of the most influential producers of the '80s. His arms were beginning the music New Age Steppers (born from a collaboration between him, his childhood friend Mark Stewart and the Slits Ari) and Dub Syndicate, which register with `disc dub elevated, but not particularly creative . In the early days of rap, Sherwood was invited to New York by Tom Silverman of Tommy Boy deus ex machina, to record a single with the already famous Keith Leblanc. Sherwood gleanings `Skip McDonald and Doug Wimbish and port does everyone in England. Disguised as Maffia, Fats Comet, Tackhead , Strange Parcels, Little Axe, these four characters have revolutionized the concept of funk, first served with a perfectly free of new technologies and the other by entering into a general anger and vulgarity, which are the exact opposite of the refined sensuality of the '70s. Sherwood is in reality concentrated on Dub Syndicate, an open group (only constant drummer Style Scott) who participates in the beautiful world of British alternative rock, which debut with ` Pounding System (1982), North of the River Thames ( 1984) and Tunes from the Missing Channel (1985), and the African Head Charge, which broadcast his ideas directly to disk from A Hole in the Ground (1981), Drastic Season (1983) and ' Off The Beaten Track ( 1986). These are ideas that are based in large part to reggae, but who focus on a stylized use of recording technology. McDonald seems, in perspective, the real musical genius of its operations. Sherwood shares' from a very simple principle, the same who had been critical to the success of the soul of Stax and Motown then: all the music to anchor a solid rhythm section. You can tell that Sherwood was the first to invent the dub aesthetic, to make a kind of Jamaican art of the West. The Dub Syndicate ITS repeated cliches on Strike the Balance (1990), Stoned Immaculate (On-U, 1991), Echo Mania (On-U, 1994) Ital Breakfast (On-U Sound, 1996) with unrestrained nonchalance. They are all impeccable records of world trance dance music. Fear Of A Green Planet (Shanachie, 1998) added elements of trip-hop But Was Fundamentally a well-produced parade of cliches. In the meantime, African Head Charge Their career continued in ambient dub with Songs of Praise (1991), In Pursuit of Shashamane Land (1994), Environmental Studies (1997). After Several mediocre recordints, Dub Syndicate returned to top form on Acres Of Space (Lion & Roots, 2001), Murder Tone (2002), No Bed of Roses (2004). Bob Marley
Born in the countryside, the son of a black and white, Bob Marley moved 'in the slums of Kingston at age 14, immediately starting to sing. At age 17, who discovered the Jimmy Cliff. In 1963 he formed the Wailers with Peter "Tosh" McIntosh and Peter Neville "Bunny Wailer" Livingston (initially a quintet, then a trio). Simmer Down (1963), their first major single, and Love And Affection (1965) were the hits that made them famous in their homeland. In Rude Boy (1965) `Marley song for the first time the exploits of thugs. In 1966 Marley `emigrated in USA. After three years, returned to Jamaica, `register with the group's first reggae album, Best of the Wailers (1970). At the same time his anger acquired a social and a perfect symbiosis with producer Lee "Scratch" Perry is manifest in `anthem classics such as Soul Rebel (1970), 400 Years (1970), Duppy Conqueror (1971), Small Axe (1971 ) Trench Town Rock (1971). In the meantime, had embraced the religion of the Rastas and consequently fouling is his music of spiritual speculation. After reaching the peak of popularity in the Caribbean, despite the arrest of Livingstone and the failure of their own independent label, the Wailers began the conquest of England. The sound became more hard, thanks to a new rhythm section, and the focus shifts to `45 to 33 laps. Catch A Fire (1973) was the album that sells is the kind in the world ( Stir It Up ). Freed and Livinstone Tosh, Marley turned decisively to the public of the white rock. This season, full of classic songs such as I Shot The Sheriff and the revolutionary anthem Get Up Stand Up , both from Burnin ' (1973), funk Lively Up Yourself " and the poignant No Woman No Cry , from Natty Dread (1974) . `culminated with a legendary concert in London. It became famous worldwide, but it began to take themselves too seriously, propinano discs of dance music with the look of the Prophet, until his death from cancer which occurred in 1981. Among the successes of the trading period: Exodus , full of Rasta rhetoric, and as a demonic funk Jamming , from Exodus (1977), the lascivious Is This Love and Satisfy My Soul , by Kaya (1978), Zimbabwe (1979) by Survival ( 1979), Redemption Song , by apocalyptic folk-ballad singer, and hit the dance floor Could You Be Loved , by Uprising (1980). Marley was the official disclosure of reggae and Rastafarian culture. Often tedious and repetitive, never brilliant or innovative, Marley stole riffs, melodies and arrangements for all kinds commercial whites and blacks, from spirituals to Tin Pan Alley. Disguised as a music sub-proletariat of the Third World, his was in reality a simple dance music for American teenagers, and its author a late hippy unrealistic and superficial. Black Uhuru

("black freedom"), formed in 1974 by Derrick "Duckie" Simpson and propelled by the Afro-Arabic vocal style of Michael Rose and by the pseudo-Hebrew chanting of Sandra "Puma" Jones, coupled the subtle fervor of vocal groups with the hard sound of Sly Dunbar's and Robbie Shakespeare's rhythm section. Showcase (1979), also known as Vital Selection and Black Uhuru (1981) and Guess Who's Coming To Dinner (1981), is a compilation of their early singles, such as General Penitentiary (1978) and Guess Who's Coming To Dinner (1979). Sensimilla (1980) was their first album, a collection of melodic and intense jams. They became an international attraction by wrapping reggae and Rastafarianism into a slick production of drum-machines and synthesizers on Red (1981), including The Youth Of Englington (1981), Chill Out (1982) and Anthem (1983). The Dub Factor (1983) was an excellent remix album. Junior Reid replaced Michael Rose on Brutal (1986). Puma Jones died of cancer in 1990. Positive (1987), Now (1990), Iron Storm (1991), Mystical Truth (1993) and Strongg (1994) were mediocre attempts at recapturing the audience's attention. EDDIE GRANT

Some reggae vocalists exploited their roots to become eclectic auteurs on the international scene. Guyana-born, London-raised and Barbados-resident Eddy Grant, former guitarist of multiracial combo Equals (the psychedelic rhythm'n'blues number Baby Come Back, 1968; Black Skinned Blue Eyed Boys, one of the predecessors of soca), was one of the most successful with the electronic Afro-rock-reggae-funk fusion of Jamaican Child (1977), Living On The Frontline (1979), Electric Avenue (1982), Romancing The Stone (1984) and Born Tuff (1986). His ambitions are well represented by the Frontline Symphony (1979) (with opera choir) and by the calypso-tinged sermon Preaching Genocide (1980). Grant played all the instruments on his debut solo album, Message Man (1977). Walking on Sunshine (1979) was probably his most daring production. Following the repetitive Love in Exile (1980) and Can't Get Enough (1981), Killer on the Rampage (1982) became his most successful album. His pop career continued with Going for Broke (1984), Born Tuff (1986), File Under Rock (1988), while Grant returned to his roots on Painting of the Soul (1992) and Soca Baptism (1993), a collection of covers. Eek-a-mouse

(Ripton Joseph Hylton) invented a unique vocal technique, both melodic and "percussive", inspired to "sing-jaying" (an early form of toasting) which is a sort of nasal s**t imbued with a phonetic hodgepodge of foreign accents. After releasing My Father's Land and Creation under his real name, he adopted his moniker and began to specialize in lunatic social satires such as Wah Do Dem (1980), off his debut album Bubble Up Yu Hip (1981), Once A Virgin (1981), Modelling Queen (1981), Virgin Girl (1981), Noah's Ark (1981), Wild Like a Tiger (1982), For Hire and Removal (1982), Do You Remember (1982), G***a Smuggling (1982), etc. Wa Do Dem (1982) compiled most of the singles. As he tried to get more serious, on Skidip (1982), Mouse and the Man (1983) and Mouseketeer (1984), and as he turned to a reggae-rock fusion on Assassinator (1985) and The King and I (1985), the limits of his music became more obvious. His career continued with U-Neek (1991), with You're The Only One I Need, Black Cowboy (1996), Eeksperience (2001). Jamaican dj and dub specialist MIKEY DREAD (Michael Campbell) crafted African Anthem/ At The Control Dubwise (1979), with help from Scientist, King Tubby, Augustus Pablo and Sly & Robbie, and World War III (1981), with help from Scientist, after collaborating with the punk-rock band Clash. African Anthem: The Mikey Dread Show (Auralux, 2004) is the dub version f At The Controls. Music of Jamaica
Music of Jamaica
Kumina - Niyabinghi - Mento - Ska - Rocksteady - Reggae - Sound systems - Lovers rock - Dub - Dancehall - Dub poetry - Toasting - Raggamuffin - Roots reggae - Reggae fusion
Anglophone Caribbean music

Anguilla - Antigua and Barbuda - Bahamas - Barbados - Bermuda - Caymans - Grenada - Jamaica - Montserrat - St. Kitts and Nevis - St. Vincent and the Grenadines - Trinidad and Tobago - Turks and Caicos - Virgin Islands

Other Caribbean music
Aruba and the Dutch Antilles - Cuba - Dominica - Dominican Republic - Haiti - Hawaii - Martinique and Guadeloupe - Puerto Rico - St. Lucia - United States - United Kingdom

The music of Jamaica includes Jamaican folk music and many popular genres, such as mento, ska, rocksteady, reggae, dub music, dancehall, reggae fusion and related styles. Jamaica's music culture is a fusion of elements from the United States (rhythm and blues, rock and roll, soul), Africa and neighboring Caribbean islands such as Trinidad and Tobago (calypso and soca). Reggae is especially popular through the international fame of Bob Marley. Jamaican music's influence on music styles in other countries includes the practice of toasting, which was brought to New York City and evolved into rapping, For years, and still today, Jamaican Music, such as slangs and beats has been copied into other cultures because of the originality and creativity within the islands vibe. British genres as Lovers rock and jungle music are also influenced by Jamaican music. Contents
1 Folk music
2 Mentos
3 Sound systems
4 Jazz
5 Ska
6 DJs and toasting
7 Rocksteady
8 Reggae
9 Dub
10 Other 1970s developments
11 Dancehall and ragga
12 Reggae fusion
13 Non-Rastafarian Jamaican religious music
14 Other developments
15 Footnotes
16 References
17 External links

Main article: Jamaican folk music

108 Jamaican folk songs was published 1907 at Walter Jekyll's Jamaican Song and Story.Unlike much other Jamaican music, these folk songs are in the public domain. They served as the basis for much research in Jamaican folk music and folklore, and several (along with other folk songs) were arranged by Olive Lewin and published by Oxford University Press. Several melodies in the Jekyll and Lewin collections, such as "Linstead Market", were adapted to other styles, including mento. Mentos

Mento was recorded in Jamaica in the 1950s due to the efforts of Stanley Motta, who noted the similarities between Jamaican folk and Trinidadian calypso, which was becoming popular around the world. For decades, mento bands toured the big hotels in Jamaica. While mento never found as large an international audience as calypso, some mento recordings, such as by Count Lasher, Lord Composer and George Moxey, are now widely-respected legends of Jamaican music. Although mento has largely been supplanted by successors like reggae and dub, the style is still performed, recorded, and released internationally by traditionalist performers like the Jolly Boys. Sound systems

Mobile sound systems that played American hits became popular in the 1950s in Kingston, Jamaica. Major figures in the early sound system scene included Duke Reid, Prince Buster and Sir Coxsone Dodd. In 1958, due to a shortage of new material, the first local rhythm and blues bands, most influentially the duo Higgs and Wilson (Joe Higgs and Roy Wilson), began recording to fulfil the local demand for new music. Rupert E. Brown was the original owner of the "King Attarney" sound system, which was popular from 1975 to 1976. His only album was Dubbing to the King In A Higher Rank. The DJ crew that worked for King Attarney was Danny Dread, U-Roy, and Ranking Trevor. Jazz

From early in the 20th century, Jamaica produced many notable jazz musicians. In this development the enlightened policy of the Alpha School in Kingston, which provided training and encouragement in music education for its pupils, was very influential. Also significant was the brass band tradition of the island, strengthened by opportunities for musical work and training in military contexts. However, limited scope for making a career playing jazz in Jamaica resulted in many local jazz musicians leaving the island to settle in London or in the United States. Among the most notable Jamaican jazz instrumentalists who made successful careers abroad was alto saxophonist Joe Harriott, now regarded internationally as one of the most original and innovative of jazz composers. Also internationally successful were trumpeters Dizzy Reece, Leslie 'Jiver' Hutchinson and Leslie Thompson, bassist Coleridge Goode, guitarist Ernest Ranglin and pianist Monty Alexander. Harriott, Goode, Hutchinson and Thompson built their careers in London, along with many other instrumentalists, such as pianist Yorke de Souza and the outstanding saxophonist Bertie King, who later returned to Jamaica and formed a mento-style band. Reece and Alexander worked in the US. Saxophonist Wilton 'Bogey' Gaynair settled in Germany working mainly with Kurt Edelhagen's orchestra. Ska

Ska (pronounced /ˈskɑː/, Jamaican is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s, and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae. Ska combined elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American jazz and rhythm and blues. It is characterized by a walking bass line accented with rhythms on the upbeat. In the early 1960s, ska was the dominant music genre of Jamaica and was popular with British mods. Later it became popular with many skinheads. Music historians typically divide the history of ska into three periods: the original Jamaican scene of the 1960s (First Wave), the English 2 Tone ska revival of the late 1970s (Second Wave) and the third wave ska movement, which started in the 1980s (Third Wave) and rose to popularity in the US in the 1990s

DJs and toasting

Along with the rise of ska came the popularity of DJs like Sir Lord Comic, King Stitt and pioneer Count Matchuki, who began talking stylistically over the rhythms of popular songs at sound systems. In Jamaican music, the DJ is the one who talks (known elsewhere as the MC) and the selector is the person who chooses the records. The popularity of DJs as an essential component of the sound system created a need for instrumental songs, as well as instrumental versions of popular vocal songs. In the late 1960s, producers like King Tubby and Lee Perry began stripping the vocals away from tracks recorded for sound system parties. With the bare beats and bass playing and the lead instruments dropping in and out of the mix, DJs began toasting, or delivering humorous and often provoking jabs at fellow DJs and local celebrities. Over time, toasting became an increasingly complex activity, and became as big a draw as the dance beats played behind it. In the early 1970s, DJs such as DJ Kool Herc took the practice of toasting to New York City, where it evolved into rap music. Rocksteady

Rocksteady was the music of Jamaica's rude boys by the mid-1960s, when The Wailers and The Clarendonians dominated the charts, taking over from pioneers like Alton Ellis (who is believed to have invented rocksteady). Desmond Dekker's "007" brought international attention to the new genre. The mix put heavy emphasis on the bass line, as opposed to ska's strong horn section, and the rhythm guitar began playing on the upbeat. Session musicians like Supersonics, Soul Vendors, Jets and Jackie Mittoo (of the Skatalites) became popular during this period. Reggae

By the early 1970s, rocksteady had evolved into reggae, which combines elements from American soul music with the traditional shuffle and one-drop of Jamaican mento. Reggae quickly became popular around the world, due in large part to the international success of artists like Bob Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer. Marley was viewed as a Rastafarian messianic figure by some fans, particularly throughout the Caribbean, Africa, and among Native Americans and Australian Aborigines. His lyrics about love, redemption and natural beauty captivated audiences, and he gained headlines for negotiating truces between the two opposing Jamaican political parties (at the One Love Concert), led by Michael Manley (PNP) and Edward Seaga. Dub

By 1973, dub music had emerged as a distinct reggae genre, and heralded the dawn of the remix. Developed by record producers such as Lee "Scratch" Perry and King Tubby, dub featured previously-recorded songs remixed with prominence on the bass. Often the lead instruments and vocals would drop in and out of the mix, sometimes processed heavily with studio effects. King Tubby's advantage came from his intimate knowledge with audio gear, and his ability to build his own sound systems and recording studios that were superior to the competition. He became famous for his remixes of recordings made by others, as well as those he recorded in his own studio. Following in Tubby's footsteps came artists such as U-Roy and Big Youth, who used Rasta chants in songs. Until the end of the 1970s, Big Youth-inspired dub music with chanted vocals dominated Jamaican popular music. At the very end of the decade, dancehall artists like Ranking Joe, Lone Ranger and General Echo brought a return to U-Roy's style. Other 1970s developments

Other popular music forms that arose during the 1970s include: Briton (Linton Kwesi Johnson's dub poetry); Sly & Robbie's rockers reggae, which drew on Augustus Pablo's melodica, becoming popular with artists such as The Mighty Diamonds and The Gladiators; Joe Gibbs' mellower rockers reggae, including music by Culture and Dennis Brown; Burning Spear's distinctive style, as represented by the albums Marcus Garvey and Man in the Hills; and harmonic, spiritually-oriented Rasta music like that of The Abyssinians, Black Uhuru and Third World. In 1975, Louisa Marks had a hit with "Caught You in a Lie", beginning a trend of British performers making romantic, ballad-oriented reggae called lovers rock. Reggae and ska had a massive influence on British punk rock and New Wave bands of the 1970s, such as The Clash, Elvis Costello and the Attractions, The Police, The Slits, and The Ruts. Ska revival bands such as The Specials, Madness and The Selecter developed the 2 Tone genre. Dancehall and ragga

During the 1980s, the most popular music styles in Jamaica were dancehall and ragga. Dancehall is essentially speechifying with musical accompaniment, including a basic drum beat (most often played on electric drums). The lyrics moved away from the political and spiritual lyrics popular in the 1970s and concentrate more on less serious issues. Ragga is characterized by the use of computerized beats and sequenced melodic tracks. Ragga is usually said to have been invented with the song "Under Mi Sleng Teng" by Wayne Smith. Ragga barely edged out dancehall as the dominant form of Jamaican music in the 1980s. DJ Shabba Ranks and vocalist team Chaka Demus and Pliers proved more enduring than the competition, and helped inspire an updated version of the rude boy culture called raggamuffin. Dancehall was sometimes violent in lyrical content, and several rival performers made headlines with their feuds across Jamaica (most notably Beenie Man versus Bounty Killer). Dancehall emerged from pioneering recordings in the late 1970s by Barrington Levy, with Roots Radics backing and Junjo Lawes as producer. The Roots Radics were the pre-eminent backing band for the dancehall style. Yellowman, Ini Kamoze, Charlie Chaplin and General Echo helped popularize the style along with producers like Sugar Minott. The 1980s saw a rise in reggae music from outside of Jamaica. During this time, reggae particularly influenced African popular music, where Sonny Okusuns (Nigeria), John Chibadura (Zimbabwe), Lucky Dube (South Africa) and Alpha Blondy (Ivory Coast) became stars. The 1980s saw the end of the dub era in Jamaica, although dub has remained a popular and influential style in the UK, and to a lesser extent throughout Europe and the US. Dub in the 1980s and 1990s has merged with electronic music. Variations of dancehall continued to be popular into the mid 1990s. Some of the performers of the previous decade converted to Rastafari, and changed their lyrical content. Artists like Buju Banton experienced significant crossover success in foreign markets, while Beenie Man, Bounty Killer and others developed a sizable North American following, due to their frequent guest spots on albums by gangsta rappers like Wu-Tang Clan and Jay-Z. Some ragga musicians, including Beenie Man, Shabba Ranks and Capleton, publicly converted to a new lyrical style, in the hope that his new style of lyrics would not offend any one particular social group.[citation needed]

[edit] Reggae fusion

Reggae fusion emerged as a popular subgenre in the late 1990s. It is a mixture of reggae or dancehall with elements of other genres such as hip hop, R&B, jazz, rock 'n roll or indie rocCK It is closely related to ragga music. It originated in Jamaica, North America and Europe

Non-Rastafarian Jamaican religious music

The Bongo Nation is a distinct group of Jamaicans possibly descended from the Congo. They are known for Kumina, which refers to both a religion and a form of music. Kumina's distinctive drumming style became one of the roots of Rastafarian drumming, itself the source of the distinctive Jamaican rhythm heard in ska, rocksteady and reggae. The modern intertwining of Jamaican religion and music can be traced back to the 1860s, when the Pocomania and Revival Zion churches drew on African traditions, and incorporated music into almost every facet of worship. Later, this trend spread into Hindu communities, resulting in baccra music. The spread of Rastafari into urban Jamaica in the 1960s transformed the Jamaican music scene, which incorporated drumming (played at grounation ceremonies) and which has led to today's popular music. Many of the above mentioned music and dance have been stylised by the National Dance Theatre Company of Jamaica led by Prof. Rex Nettleford artistic director (ret, prof and vice chancellor of The University of the West Indies) and Marjorie Whyle Musical Director (Caribbean Musicologist, pianist, drummer, arranger lecturer at the University of the West Indies). Since 1962, this volunteer company of dancers and musicians have had many of these dances in its core repertoire and have performed worldwide to large audiences, including The British Royal family.Other developments

Other trends included minimalist digital tracks, which began with Dave Kelly's "Pepper Seed" in 1995, alongside the return of love balladeers like Beres Hammond. American, British, and European electronic musicians used reggae-oriented beats to create further hybrid electronic music styles. Dub, world music, and electronic music continue to influence music in the 2000s. JaFolk Mix is a term coined by Jamaican musician Joy Fairclough, to mean the mix of Jamaican Folk Music with any foreign and local styles of music and the evolution of a new sound created by their fusion. This is the latest Jamaican Music stylistic development of the late 20th century and 21st century. Jamaican music continues to influence the world's music. Many efforts at studying and copying Jamaican music has introduced the world to this new form of music as the copied styles are performed with accents linguistically and musically slanted to that of the home nation in which it is being studied, copied and performed.




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