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On display now: Martin Luther King Jr.’s original speech from the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.The case...
01/08/2024

On display now: Martin Luther King Jr.’s original speech from the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

The case containing the speech has been reinstalled just in time for visitors to view the historic document ahead of . It will be on view in the “Defending Freedom, Defining Freedom” gallery, on loan from Villanova University, through March 4, 2024.

Learn more: s.si.edu/3H1puba

📸 Photograph by Roy Lewis. Johnson Publishing Company Archive. Courtesy J. Paul Getty Trust and Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture

  in 1931, choreographer Alvin Ailey was born. Ailey founded the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in NYC with a vision...
01/05/2024

in 1931, choreographer Alvin Ailey was born. Ailey founded the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in NYC with a vision of narrating the vibrant history and unlimited possibilities of Black culture within modern dance: https://s.si.edu/3ihTg2M

📸 Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture and Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation, Inc., Photography by Jack Mitchell, © Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation, Inc. and Smithsonian Institution, All rights reserved.

  in 1911, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Incorporated was founded at Indiana University Bloomington. Elder W. Diggs, Byron...
01/05/2024

in 1911, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Incorporated was founded at Indiana University Bloomington. Elder W. Diggs, Byron K. Armstrong, John M. Lee, Henry T. Asher, Marcus P. Blakemore, Guy L. Grant, Paul W. Caine, George W. Edmonds, Ezra D. Alexander and Edward G. Irvin created the organization rooted in Black students’ academic achievement and community service.

Kappa Alpha Psi sponsors programs that provide community services, promote social welfare, and encourage academic achievement through the Kappa Alpha Psi Foundation. Learn more about the historical legacy of Black Greek-letter organizations on our website: https://nmaahc.si.edu/explore/stories/divine-nine-black-fraternities-sororities



📸 Photograph of Kappa Alpha Psi members. Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Calvin M. Reaves, Polemarch (2012-2019), Smithfield (NC) Alumni Chapter, Middle Eastern Province

The Poor People’s Campaign, also known as the Poor People’s March on Washington, was a 1968 effort envisioned by Dr. Mar...
01/04/2024

The Poor People’s Campaign, also known as the Poor People’s March on Washington, was a 1968 effort envisioned by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference that demanded economic and human rights for poor Americans of diverse backgrounds.

On May 12, 1968, a few weeks following Dr. King’s funeral, his widow, Coretta Scott King and civil rights activist Ralph Abernathy launched the campaign. Thousands of people left their homes and communities, many for the first time, to live in tents along the National Mall. Each day they demonstrated on the steps of government agencies to demand equal access to employment and job training, livable wages, quality education, health care, nutritious food, and safe, affordable housing.

They also established “the Freedom Train” caravan where d 300 people boarded buses in Marks, Mississippi bound for Washington, D.C. The Freedom Train included the movement’s iconic mules and wagons to symbolize the injustices of tenant farming, sharecropping, and the plantation economy. Dr. King had initially chosen Marks as the start of the caravan because it was poorest county in the United States at the time, where he “saw hundreds of black boys and black girls walking the streets with no shoes to wear.”

Bear witness to the stories of Americans who traveled by “Mule Train” caravans to Washington, D.C. to participate in the Poor People’s March on Washington, like photographer Roland L. Freeman: https://s.si.edu/48kDVTS



📸 Mule Train leaves for Washington, Poor People's March, Marks, MS, May 1968. Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, © Ernest C. Withers Trust

Join us this month as we commemorate Martin Luther King Jr.’s life and legacy. View King’s original “I Have a Dream” spe...
01/02/2024

Join us this month as we commemorate Martin Luther King Jr.’s life and legacy. View King’s original “I Have a Dream” speech from the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, on loan from Villanova University, from January 8 – March 4.

Additional January programming includes a panel discussion on January 8 with author Jonathan Eig on his biography “King: A Life” and a Community Day, “The People’s Holiday: The Many Dreams of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.,” which reinterprets the life and work of King through powerful performances by students from Duke Ellington School of the Arts, and more.

Discover more of our January programming: https://s.si.edu/3H1puba

Sadie T. M. Alexander was born   in 1898 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Though she faced racism and sexism, Alexander pe...
01/02/2024

Sadie T. M. Alexander was born in 1898 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Though she faced racism and sexism, Alexander persisted with her education and became the first African American woman to earn a Ph.D. in economics and became one of first Black woman to receive a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania.

In 1927 at the age of 29, Alexander also became the first African American woman to graduate from the University of Pennsylvania Law School and the first African American woman to pass the Pennsylvania bar.

During her career, which spanned over 50 years, Sadie Alexander became a noted lawyer and civil rights advocate. Alexander used her skills to work on cases in the Philadelphia Orphans' Court while advocating for racial equality. She served 2 non-consecutive terms as Assistant City Solicitor for the City of Philadelphia. In that role she formed the Legal Aide Bureau to help Philadelphians who could not afford a lawyer.

Sadie also served as the first national president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority. Also, as secretary of the National Urban League, she was appointed by President Harry Truman to serve on the Committee on Human Rights in 1947.

📸 Sadie T. M. Alexander. Courtesy of Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Habari Gani?  Imani!   ’s last day of Faith is usually spent at home with  immediate family. There is an emphasis on fai...
01/01/2024

Habari Gani?

Imani!

’s last day of Faith is usually spent at home with immediate family. There is an emphasis on faith in ourselves, our communities, and the ancestors — those who, as the Black National Anthem, “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” proudly proclaims, “have brought us thus far on the way.”

Join our celebration: nmaahc.si.edu/kwanzaa

On December 31st, 1862, African Americans both free and enslaved, along with others who supported the end of slavery, wa...
01/01/2024

On December 31st, 1862, African Americans both free and enslaved, along with others who supported the end of slavery, waited for the midnight hour for the Emancipation Proclamation to go into effect. They gathered in churches across the nation praying their way to freedom.

The occasion came to be known as “Watch Night,” a New Year’s Eve ritual still practiced among Black church congregations today. President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation Executive Order on January 1, 1863, granting freedom to enslaved African American men, women, and children in the rebelling states. Pastor John C. Gibbs of Philadelphia’s First African Presbyterian Church declared, “The Proclamation has gone forth, and God is saying to this nation by its legitimate constitute head, Man must be free.”

Explore the history of the Emancipation Proclamation on our Searchable Museum: s.si.edu/3soyDmH



📸 Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture

🪩  , the “Queen of Disco” Donna Summer, was born in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston in 1948. “Love to Love You Bab...
12/31/2023

🪩 , the “Queen of Disco” Donna Summer, was born in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston in 1948. “Love to Love You Baby” was released in 1975 and became the single that catapulted Summer to international disco stardom.

📸 Photograph by Norman L. Hunter. Johnson Publishing Company Archive. Courtesy J. Paul Getty Trust and Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture

12/31/2023

On the night of December 31, 1862, enslaved and free African Americans gathered, many in secret, to ring in the new year and await news that the Emancipation Proclamation had taken effect. Just a few months earlier, on September 22, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issued the executive order that declared enslaved people in the rebelling Confederate States legally free.

However, the decree would not take effect until the clock struck midnight at the start of the new year in 1863. The occasion, known as Watch Night or “Freedom’s Eve,” marks when African Americans across the country watched and waited for the news of freedom. More on the history of the Emancipation: https://s.si.edu/48o0OpI



📸 Waiting for the Hour. Carte-de-visite of an emancipation watch night meeting, 1863. Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture

Habari Gani?  Kuumba!  On the 6th day of  , there is a large feast called Karamu Ya Imani, meaning Feast of Faith. This ...
12/31/2023

Habari Gani?

Kuumba!

On the 6th day of , there is a large feast called Karamu Ya Imani, meaning Feast of Faith. This day is a festive celebration of the manifestations of creativity in the culture of the African diaspora. Everyone is encouraged to create and share something. It could be visual art, poetry, music, dance, theatre and more. Join the celebration: nmaahc.si.edu/kwanzaa

“Us as Americans, no matter the skin color, no matter the race, no matter who you are, we all have to understand having ...
12/30/2023

“Us as Americans, no matter the skin color, no matter the race, no matter who you are, we all have to understand having equal rights and being able to stand for something, speak for something and keeping the conversation going ...equality is all about understanding our rights, understanding what we stand for and how powerful we are as men, as women... it doesn’t matter your race, whatever the case may be. This is a beautiful country.” - LeBron James

Basketball player LeBron James was born in Akron, Ohio in 1984. The 4-time NBA champion and 4-time NBA Most Valuable Player exemplifies a long history of Black athletes who have stood for social change and racial equality. A pair of sneakers LeBron wore is on display in the basketball section of our "Sports: Leveling the Playing Field" exhibition.

📸 LeBron James, San Francisco, CA, 2009. Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Walter Iooss, © Walter Iooss

Habari Gani?  Nia!  Many   were founded for reasons aligned with  ’s 5th principle: “purpose,” or community development ...
12/30/2023

Habari Gani?

Nia!

Many were founded for reasons aligned with ’s 5th principle: “purpose,” or community development for the purpose of restoring greatness. If you attended an HBCU, did you experience this collective? Join our Kwanzaa celebration: nmaahc.si.edu/kwanzaa

Habari Gani?  Ujamaa!  It's the 4th day of  , and today's principle is Cooperative Economics. Did you know, “Kawaida,” i...
12/29/2023

Habari Gani?

Ujamaa!

It's the 4th day of , and today's principle is Cooperative Economics. Did you know, “Kawaida,” is the philosophy of cultural nationalism which forms the basis for the development of Kwanzaa? More: nmaahc.si.edu/kwanzaa

  in 1954, actor Denzel Washington was born in Mount Vernon, NY. In 1990, he won an Oscar for his performance in “Glory”...
12/28/2023

in 1954, actor Denzel Washington was born in Mount Vernon, NY. In 1990, he won an Oscar for his performance in “Glory” for Best Supporting Actor. In 2002, Washington became only the second Black American after Sidney Poitier to win an Oscar for Best Actor, for his performance in the blockbuster “Training Day.”

Washington also received critical acclaim for his portrayals of Malcolm X in Spike Lee’s 1992 biopic and boxer Rubin “Hurricane” Carter in “The Hurricane.”

📸 Denzel Washington, 1999. Courtesy of Vinnie Zuffante/Getty Images

Habari Gani?  Ujima!  Today's 3rd principle of   means Collective Work and Responsibility. How are you embracing the thi...
12/28/2023

Habari Gani?

Ujima!

Today's 3rd principle of means Collective Work and Responsibility. How are you embracing the third principle of Kwanzaa?

Join us for a virtual Kwanzaa celebration: nmaahc.si.edu/kwanzaa

Habari Gani?  Kujichagulia!   ’s theme colors reflect the Pan-African movement: black for the people, red for the strugg...
12/27/2023

Habari Gani?

Kujichagulia!
’s theme colors reflect the Pan-African movement: black for the people, red for the struggle, and green for the future and hope that comes from struggle. nmaahc.si.edu/kwanzaa

Habari Gani?Umoja!Today is the 1st day of  , a 7-day African American and Pan-African holiday founded in 1966 that celeb...
12/26/2023

Habari Gani?
Umoja!
Today is the 1st day of , a 7-day African American and Pan-African holiday founded in 1966 that celebrates history, values, family, community, and culture. Join our museum's virtual Kwanzaa celebration: http://nmaahc.si.edu/kwanzaa

Can you list all 7 principles of Kwanzaa?  The “Nguzo Saba” or as it translates from Swahili to English, “The Seven Prin...
12/26/2023

Can you list all 7 principles of Kwanzaa?

The “Nguzo Saba” or as it translates from Swahili to English, “The Seven Principles of Kwanzaa,” is a value system and set of principles which outline the mission statement and intentions of Kwanzaa. From December 26 to January 1, a different principle is celebrated each day, highlighting African-centered themes and traditions.

The Nguzo Saba are listed as:

🔴 Umoja (Unity)
⚫ Kujichagulia (Self-Determination)
🟢 Ujima (Collective Work and Responsibility)
🔴 Ujamaa (Cooperative economics)
⚫ Nia (purpose)
🟢 Kuumba (creativity)
🔴 Imani (faith)

During Kwanzaa someone will informally ask, “Habari Gani?” or “What's happening?” in Swahili throughout the day. Someone will respond with the principle for the day, which today is “Umoja” which translates into English as “Unity”.

To learn more about Kwanzaa’s history, cultural expressions, and to find fun activities for new families & children, as well as more information on the 7 principles, join our virtual Kwanzaa celebration: nmaahc.si.edu/kwanzaa

📸 Pinback button celebrating the seven principles of Kwanzaa. Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture

12/25/2023

"The Color Purple," written by activist and novelist Alice Walker, follows the extraordinary sisterhood of three women who share an unbreakable bond.

Today's cinematic adaptation of the beloved theatrical and literary classic is directed by Blitz Bazawule and produced by Steven Spielberg, Scott Sanders, Quincy Jones, and original cast member of the 1985 film Oprah Winfrey.

View Winfrey's black dress and green coat from the 1985 film adaptation: https://s.si.edu/48xG9yZ



📸 1. & 2. Black dress and green coat worn by Oprah Winfrey as Sofia in , 1985. Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.

What showed up under your tree this  ? 🎁🎄⁣ For this little girl, captured by photographer Rev. Henry Clay Anderson, it w...
12/25/2023

What showed up under your tree this ? 🎁🎄⁣

For this little girl, captured by photographer Rev. Henry Clay Anderson, it was a bike and an "I Cry 'Mama'" doll.

Anderson documented the daily lives of Black Americans in the middle-class African American community of Greenville, Mississippi.

Our museum is home to more than 5,000 images taken by Anderson in the mid-20th century South, capturing everything from weddings to funerals and much of life in-between.

📸 Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Charles Schwartz and Shawn Wilson, © Smithsonian National Museum of African American History & Culture

12/24/2023

On 1854, Harriet Tubman returned to her Eastern Shore Maryland home to emancipate her brothers Ben, Henry, and Robert from slavery. Tubman had heard rumors that there were plans to sell the men the day after Christmas, so she sent word to her brothers through Jacob Jackson, a free African American man.

During the slavery era, Christmas became a popular time for freedom seekers to plan escapes because enslaved people often received travel passes to visit family who lived on other properties during the holiday. Once they received travel passes, they were not expected to show up again until well after the holiday. Tubman wrote in code: “tell my brothers to be always watching unto prayer and when the good old ship of Zion comes along, to be ready to step on board.”

The brothers had travel passes to visit their parents Ben Sr. and Rit Ross for Christmas. 3 others, including Ben’s fiancée, would join the group on their journey North to freedom. They traveled more than 100 miles, arriving at William Still’s Anti-Slavery office in Philadelphia on Dec. 29, 1854.

📸 Photographer William H. Cheney, South Orange, NJ, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

  in 1867, Madame C.J. Walker was born in Delta, Louisiana. She is widely known for her successful beauty and haircare b...
12/23/2023

in 1867, Madame C.J. Walker was born in Delta, Louisiana. She is widely known for her successful beauty and haircare business, produced by her Madam C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company. Walker was considered the wealthiest African American businesswoman and wealthiest self-made woman at the time of her death in 1919. Walker, who was born as Sarah Breedlove, was one of 6 children, and was the first child in her family born into freedom after the Emancipation Proclamation was signed.

Walker’s life includes a long history of activism and philanthropy toward racial equality and civil rights. Walker was also closely affiliated with Marcus Garvey, donating to the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). She was joined by Garvey and others when she founded The International League for Darker People in 1919. The organization aimed to bring together African Americans with other non-European people to pursue shared goals at the Paris Peace Conference following World War I.

Visit our Searchable Museum to learn more about how African American entrepreneurs like Walker made a way out of no way and created institutions to serve, sustain, and empower Black communities: https://www.searchablemuseum.com/an-enterprising-spirit



📸 Photograph of Madam C.J. Walker, ca. 1912. Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of A'Lelia Bundles / Madam Walker Family Archives

 , an African American holiday tradition founded in 1966 by activist, theorist, and professor of Africana studies, Dr. M...
12/23/2023

, an African American holiday tradition founded in 1966 by activist, theorist, and professor of Africana studies, Dr. Maulana Karenga begins on Tuesday. Operating from a Pan-Africanist viewpoint and drawing inspiration from various harvest celebrations across the African continent, Karenga chose the Swahili term “Kwanzaa” which translates to “first fruit” as the name of the holiday. “First Fruit” illuminates the intention of reconnecting African Americans to African cultures. Kwanzaa is celebrated for 7 days, with each day representing a tenet of “Nguzo Saba” which translates to “The Seven Principles of Kwanzaa.”

During this time of year, across the nation, Kwanzaa participants don traditional African garb ranging from dashikis to Kente cloth, to prepare meals together, spend time with their family and friends, and theorize ways to build up their communities. These families decorate their homes with the Pan-African colors of red, black and green, as well as with various other African inspired cultural items.

These ceremonies usually include drumming, libations, readings related to the history and culture of the African diaspora as well as reflections on the spiritual, political and emotional meaning of specific principles of Kwanzaa, and more. Kwanzaa holiday items include a “mkeka” or mat, which holds the “Kinara” or candleholder for the “Mishumaa Saba” or the 7 candles, sets of crops such as corn that are placed on the mantel or altar to represent the bounty (or fruit) of collective planning, the “kikombe cha Umoja” or unity cup, as well as the passing out of “Zawadi” or special (often handmade) gifts.

Because of its rich cultural practices and ability to bring families and communities together in celebration of various African traditions, Kwanzaa continues to be a staple in African diaspora communities around the nation and the world.

Learn more: https://nmaahc.si.edu/kwanzaa

Kwanzaa is a time for families and communities to come together to remember the past and to celebrate African American culture.

Are you and your loved ones heading out of town for the holidays? ❄️ Enjoy these joyful, wintry travel scenes captured t...
12/22/2023

Are you and your loved ones heading out of town for the holidays? ❄️

Enjoy these joyful, wintry travel scenes captured throughout the years from the Johnson Publishing Company (JPC) archive.

JPC offered the world a full view of the African American experience and created a lasting record of Black achievement through their repository of iconic photos documenting decades of the wonders of everyday Black joy, creativity, power, community and more.

📸 1. Earth, Wind & Fire, 1974. Photograph by Moneta Sleet Jr. 2. Duke Ellington poses in the driver seat of the GM coach bus while preparing for tour. Photograph by G. Marshall Wilson. 3. Nat King Cole and wife Maria Cole are accompanied by Roosevelt Saunders and Milton Carle leaving a plane ride. Photograph by Bertrand Miles. 4. Sugar Ray Robinson, 1957. Photograph by William Lanier. Johnson Publishing Company Archive. Courtesy J. Paul Getty Trust and Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.

Join Smithsonian's Anacostia Community Museum to celebrate Kwanzaa! Each day of Kwanzaa starting at 1pm, honor the princ...
12/21/2023

Join Smithsonian's Anacostia Community Museum to celebrate Kwanzaa! Each day of Kwanzaa starting at 1pm, honor the principles with family friendly activities and workshops rooted in the traditions of the holiday.

View the schedule of events: https://anacostia.si.edu/kwanzaa

  in 1956, the community of Montgomery, Alabama voted unanimously to end its 381-day bus boycott. The boycott was ignite...
12/20/2023

in 1956, the community of Montgomery, Alabama voted unanimously to end its 381-day bus boycott. The boycott was ignited by the arrest of Rosa Parks, after she rejected a bus driver’s order to relinquish her seat in the “colored section” to a white passenger.

The Montgomery Improvement Association coordinated the boycott, which began in December 1955. Riders organized carpools or walked to get around. The city of Montgomery did not budge and lost 75% of its ridership during the protest.

The boycott ended when the federal ruling of Browder v. Gayle took effect, leading to a Supreme Court decision declaring that Alabama and Montgomery’s laws segregating buses were unconstitutional. In a speech delivered to about 2,500 people on the day that the boycott ended, Martin Luther King, Jr. urged the Negro citizens of Montgomery to return to the buses the next day on a non-segregated basis.

During the speech he stated, “as we go back to the buses let us be loving enough to turn an enemy into a friend. We must now move from protest to reconciliation.” In ‘Stride Toward Freedom,’ King’s 1958 memoir of the boycott, he declared the real meaning of the Montgomery bus boycott to be the power of growing self-respect to animate the struggle for civil rights.

📸 Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks at 16 St. Baptist Church, 1963. Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, © Estate of James Karales

Born in the South Side of Chicago in 1935, sculptor Richard Hunt studied art as a child, first at the South Side Communi...
12/19/2023

Born in the South Side of Chicago in 1935, sculptor Richard Hunt studied art as a child, first at the South Side Community Art Center and later at the Junior School of the Art Institute of Chicago.

At age 19, Hunt attended the 1955 funeral of Emmett Till and identified that as a turning point for his artistic life. Before long, he would devote himself to civil rights and creating art that expressed the critical need for human freedom and social justice. Till, the murdered 14-year-old, had lived 2 blocks from Hunt’s home.

Shortly after that, he began welding art objects out of found metal objects such as bumpers and fenders from scrap yards. Later, he worked in steel and bronze, producing monuments to such towering figures as Martin Luther King Jr., Mary McLeod Bethune, Jesse Owens, Hobart Taylor Jr. and Ida B. Wells. He also created sculptures that commemorate moments of the Middle Passage and the Great Migration.

In 1960, while serving in the U.S. Army, he was the first African American to be served at the segregated Woolworth’s lunch counter in San Antonio, Texas. In 1968, President Lyndon Johnson appointed Hunt to the National Council on the Arts, the first African American to serve in this capacity. In 1971, at the age of 35, he became the first African American sculptor to have a retrospective of his work mounted at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

His bronze sculpture, ‘Swing Low,’ was commissioned by our museum and has been on view in our Heritage Hall since the museum opened in 2016. Hunt himself called it an homage to the power of spirituals, the enduring music and poetry that inspired and sustained generations of Black Americans.

Learn more about Hunt’s life and legacy: https://s.si.edu/3RNwBu8

📸 1. Leah L. Jones/NMAAHC 2. "Swing Low" by Richard Hunt, 2016. Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Richard Hunt, © Richard Hunt. Photograph by Josh Weilepp/NMAAHC

Photographer Robert H. McNeill was born   in Washington, D.C. in 1917. McNeill captured life inside the African American...
12/19/2023

Photographer Robert H. McNeill was born in Washington, D.C. in 1917. McNeill captured life inside the African American community pre-and post-WWII. View his photography in our collection: https://s.si.edu/329GM4B

📸 1. Hammond Dance School, ca. 1940. 2. Barbershop, ca. 1945. 3. Grocery Store, 14th & U Streets, ca. 1940. Photographs by Robert H. McNeil. Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Graham Holdings Company, © Robert H. McNeill Heirs

Actress Cicely Tyson was born   in 1924 in New York City. The Emmy award-winning actress was born to immigrants from the...
12/19/2023

Actress Cicely Tyson was born in 1924 in New York City. The Emmy award-winning actress was born to immigrants from the Caribbean Island of Nevis, and embarked on a legendary career beginning in 1951 after being discovered by a fashion editor at Ebony Magazine.

Tyson blazed many trails including iconic roles in "The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman" and "Roots." She fiercely committed her life and career to presenting only positive images of Black women on the screen.

📸 Photograph by James L. Mitchell. Johnson Publishing Company Archive. Courtesy J. Paul Getty Trust and Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture

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