U.S. Army Center of Military History

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2 APRIL 1865 - SIEGE OF PETERSBURG ENDS - #CIVILWAR #ArmyhistoryWith several key positions of the Petersburg defenses fa...
04/02/2020

2 APRIL 1865 - SIEGE OF PETERSBURG ENDS - #CIVILWAR #Armyhistory

With several key positions of the Petersburg defenses falling to an assault by United States troops on 2 April 1865, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant ordered the United States Armies of the Potomac and James to prepare for an all-out attack to exploit the success of earlier that day. Although he ordered reinforcements from the Richmond defenses to oppose the onslaught, General Robert E. Lee, commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, advised President Jefferson Davis and the rest of the Confederate States of America government to evacuate the rebel capital as he began to withdraw the last of his army from the two cities.

On 29 March, with the cordon of U.S. forces tightening around Petersburg, Grant had sent part of his force south around Lee's right flank, while the main body of the combined armies moved to strike directly at that flank. The movement was temporarily slowed by Confederate forces under Generals George Pickett and Richard Ewell in battles around White Oak Road on 31 March and at Five Forks on 1 April. With the collapse of the rebel defenses there, however, Lee's last supply line became vulnerable and the situation looked desperate. Grant ordered a general assault all along the line the next morning, 2 April. As the Confederates withdrew toward Petersburg, Lee ordered Lieutenant General James Longstreet's corps from the Richmond defenses to help hold the line and stave off annihilation. With Petersburg no longer tenable, Lee ordered the rebel defenders to evacuate that night, and U.S. troops entered Petersburg the next day, 3 April.

Also see

https://history.army.mil/html/books/075/75-16/index.html

https://www.nps.gov/pete/index.htm

1 APRIL 1945 - BATTLE OF OKINAWA - #WWII75 #Armyhistory75 years ago ... On 1 Apr 1945, the U.S. Tenth Army invaded Okina...
04/01/2020

1 APRIL 1945 - BATTLE OF OKINAWA - #WWII75 #Armyhistory

75 years ago ... On 1 Apr 1945, the U.S. Tenth Army invaded Okinawa in the Ryukyus Islands, which the Japanese considered home territory. Commanded by Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner Jr., it included the Army XXIV Corps and Marine III Amphibious Corps. The campaign began on 26 Mar 1945 when the 77th Infantry Division landed on the small Kerama Islands near Okinawa, after which the U.S. established forward bases to support the next phase of the campaign.

Operation ICEBERG, the amphibious assault on Okinawa itself, took place on 1 Apr when with the Army's 7th and 96th Inf Dvns, and the 1st and 6th Marine Dvns landed on Okinawa. The 27th Inf Dvn followed ashore on 9 Apr. The 77th Infantry Division made another supporting attack by landing on Ie Shima on 16 Apr, and after that island was secured on 21 Apr, also joined the fighting on Okinawa. The battle lasted into late-June, and was particularly bitter since the Japanese considered it part of their home territory.

American troops suffered heavy casualties, not only on land, but also at sea when the Kamikazes, or Japanese suicide flyers, sank some 25 American ships and damaged 165 others in a desperate attempt to defend the Ryukyus. Capture of the Ryukyus gave Allied naval and air forces excellent bases within 700 miles of Japan proper. Throughout June and July, the Allies subjected Japan to increasingly intensive air attack and naval bombardment. General Buckner was among the nearly 35,000 American casualties suffered on Okinawa. After he was killed on 18 June, Buckner was succeeded by Major General Roy S. Geiger, USMC, who was in turn succeeded by General Joseph W. Stilwell, USA, who arrived to assume command of the Tenth Army on 22 June 1945.

ALSO SEE

https://history.army.mil/html/books/072/72-35/index.html

https://history.army.mil/html/books/005/5-11-1/index.html

https://history.army.mil/html/books/012/12-1/index.html

We have updated our website to highlight the historical lessons learned from previous pandemics. These items are very us...
03/31/2020

We have updated our website to highlight the historical lessons learned from previous pandemics. These items are very useful in demonstrating the importance of "actionable history." #Armyhistory #USArmy #TRADOC

We have also added information on our website as a quick reference guide about the COVID19/Coronavirus.

Be sure to visit the new editions to our website and let us know what you think. Remember also to follow the guidelines and do your part to #KillTheVirus

Visit history.army.mil

MAJOR FRANK CAPRA - ARMY FILM MAKER - #WWII #Armyhistory #SignalCorps"I’ll make you the best damned documentary films ev...
03/30/2020

MAJOR FRANK CAPRA - ARMY FILM MAKER - #WWII #Armyhistory #SignalCorps

"I’ll make you the best damned documentary films ever made.” - Maj Frank Capra

Academy award winning director Frank R. Capra joined the Army on 12 Dec 1941, a few days after the attack on Pearl Harbor and U.S. declaration of war against Japan. Granted a delay in reporting for active duty to complete editing on the movie "Arsenic and Old Lace," he was commissioned in the Signal Corps on 29 Jan 1942.

Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall selected Major Capra to produce a series of documentaries that chronicled the war as it was fought. According to Capra's memoirs, Marshall said, "... I want to nail down with you a plan to make a series of documented, factual-information films – the first in our history – that will explain to our boys in the Army why we are fighting, and the principles for which we are fighting."

Although a successful director of entertainment movies in civilian life, he purportedly told the chief of staff, "... it’s only fair to tell you that I have never before made a single documentary film.”

The general answered, "Capra, I have never been chief of staff before. Thousands of young Americans have never had their legs shot off before. Boys are commanding ships today, who a year ago had never seen the ocean before.”

Capra replied, “I’m sorry, sir. I’ll make you the best damned documentary films ever made.”

Under Capra, the Army's Special Services Motion Picture Production Unit made the award winning documentary series "Why We Fight." The first film, "Prelude to War," won the Academy Award for Best Documentary in 1942. Rising to the rank of colonel by the end of the war, Capra was awarded the Legion of Merit in 1943 and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1945. He returned to the film industry after completing his wartime Army service.

ALSO SEE
https://www.army.mil/article/35503/oscars_at_home_in_signal_museum

http://signal.army.mil/old/history/museum.html

Today is National Vietnam War Veterans Day, We honor our Veterans with this piece of #ArmyArt  #Armyhistory #VietamWar"S...
03/29/2020

Today is National Vietnam War Veterans Day, We honor our Veterans with this piece of #ArmyArt #Armyhistory #VietamWar

"Soldier"
Vietnam Era
Stephen H. Sheldon, 26 MAR 1967
Watercolor on paper, 30" x 22"
U.S. Army Center of Military History

#VietnamWarVeteransDay

29 MARCH 1973 - END OF U.S. MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN VIETNAM - #VietnamWar #ArmyhistoryNegotiators from the governments o...
03/29/2020

29 MARCH 1973 - END OF U.S. MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN VIETNAM - #VietnamWar #Armyhistory

Negotiators from the governments of the U.S. and South Vietnam on one side, and the government of North Vietnam on the other, meeting in formal peace talks in Paris, as well as concurrent secret peace talks, finally brought about a cease-fire agreement. The Paris Peace Accords formally ended U.S. involvement on 27 Jan 1973. Under its terms, the two warring Vietnamese nations agreed to suspend hostilities while requiring all non-Vietnamese forces to leave South Vietnam within 60 days, and the Communists to repatriate all American prisoners of war (POW). The South Vietnamese were to have the right to determine their own future, but the North Vietnamese were allowed to keep troops stationed in the areas of South Vietnam they occupied.

Although U.S. forces had begun to disengage and turn more of the fighting over to the South Vietnamese allies shortly after President Nixon took office in 1969, the cease-fire agreement officially ended U.S. involvement in the war. The last American ground forces departed Vietnam on 29 March 1973.

The photograph that depicts the evacuation of Vietnamese refugees from Saigon just before the city fell to Communist forces in April 1975 has become iconic. However, it is often incorrectly described as the hurried evacuation of the last military and diplomatic personnel from the roof of the U.S. Embassy.

The agreement notwithstanding, the conflict continued as North Vietnamese and National Liberation Front forces violated the cease-fire almost immediately.

The North Vietnamese cease fire violations continued with small actions until they launched a full-scale offensive in the central highlands in March 1975, which led to the South Vietnamese surrender on 30 April.

ALSO SEE

http://www.history.army.mil/html/reference/army_flag/vn.html

http://www.history.army.mil/banner_images/focus/dr_clarke_ret_comm/the_final_years.pdf

U.S. Army Center of Military History presents the Army through the years.
03/28/2020

U.S. Army Center of Military History presents the Army through the years.

28 MAR 1944 - BATTLE OF NHPUM GA BEGINS - #WWII #ArmyhistoryGen Joseph Stillwell's China-Burma-India (CBI) Theater campa...
03/28/2020

28 MAR 1944 - BATTLE OF NHPUM GA BEGINS - #WWII #Armyhistory

Gen Joseph Stillwell's China-Burma-India (CBI) Theater campaign to reach Jambu Bum got underway on 8 Mar 1944. Chinese divisions were making progress in Burma, but the British faced a Japanese offensive that also threatened Stillwell's supply line.

Stillwell sent GALAHAD Force - aka Merrill's Marauders - in two sub-units to envelop the Japanese right flank and cut enemy communications in two places. After marching through difficult terrain, the Marauders emerged from the Hukawng Valley onto the hills to the east and moved south via the Tanai Valley, aided by Kachin guerrillas serving as guides, screening the advance, and providing elephants to carry supplies.

The 1st Battalion moved through twenty miles of bamboo forests and took position on 27 Mar. Early the next morning the battalion surprised an enemy camp at Shaduzup and established a roadblock. To their south Colonel Charles N. Hunter, Merrill's second in command, led the 2d and 3d Battalions up the Tanai to take position near Inkawngatawng before ordered to return to counter a Japanese attack on the Chinese left flank. The 3d Battalion occupied Janpan and the 2d Battalion took up positions at Nhpum Ga. The 2d Battalion was soon surrounded by three Japanese battalions and withstood shelling and heavy attacks for eleven days. The 2d's perimeter, on top of saddle of high ground, dominated the surrounding terrain, but could only receive water re-supply by airdrop. The 2d Battalion held while its Japanese-American interpreter soldiers crept into no-man's-land at night to listen to enemy conversation and learn their intentions. The rest of GALAHAD rushed to the rescue with two airdropped 75 mm pack howitzers. Aided by this artillery fire, the 1st and 3d Battalions broke through and relieved the 2d on 9 April.

ALSO SEE

Caution-https://history.army.mil/html/books/072/72-5/index.html

Caution-https://history.army.mil/html/books/100/100-4/index.html

27 MAR 1814 - BATTLE OF HORSESHOE BEND - CREEK WAR / WAR OF 1812 #Warof1812 #ArmyhistoryIn March 1814, Tennessee Militia...
03/27/2020

27 MAR 1814 - BATTLE OF HORSESHOE BEND - CREEK WAR / WAR OF 1812 #Warof1812 #Armyhistory

In March 1814, Tennessee Militia Maj Gen Andrew Jackson led an expedition of about 2,000 infantry - including the regulars of the 39th Infantry, Tennessee Mounted Gunmen, allied Cherokee and White Stick Creek warriors, and a company of artillery with two light field pieces. Jackson's men marched 52-miles, cutting a trail through the forest, from Ft Williams on the Coosa River toward the Red Stick stronghold of Tohopeka, located at a bend in the Tallapoosa River known as Horseshoe Bend - in present-day Alabama. With the river on three sides and a strong earth-and-timber breastwork on the fourth, it was defended by between 1,000 and 1,200 warriors commanded by their leader Menawa. After making camp on 26 Mar about 6 miles from the objective, Jackson's force prepared to attack.

On the morning of 27 Mar, Brig Gen John Coffee led the Tennesseans and Cherokee and Creek allies to positions opposite the enemy town, while Jackson advanced with the main body into the peninsula. The 2 guns began an ineffectual two-hour cannonade at 1030. Although the artillery did little damage to the breastwork, the allied warriors used the diversion to capture some of the enemy Red Sticks' canoes, with which Coffee's force crossed the river and attacked the enemy from the rear. At about noon, Jackson ordered a frontal attack with the 39th Infantry in the center and brigades of militia on each flank. The regulars charged with fixed bayonets and assaulted up to and over the enemy barricade, and the fighting raged throughout the afternoon. The Red Stick warriors suffered 800 casualties, and 250 women and children were taken captive. The rest of the Creeks escaped with their severely wounded leader. The Americans suffered 49 killed and 154 wounded.

ALSO SEE
https://history.army.mil/html/books/074/74-4/index.html
https://history.army.mil/news/2015/150300a_horseshoeBend.html

Stay informed, stay safe! Make sure you are doing your part to #StopTheSpread and #KillTheVirus
03/27/2020

Stay informed, stay safe! Make sure you are doing your part to #StopTheSpread and #KillTheVirus

26-28 MARCH 1862 - BATTLE OF GLORIETA PASS - #CivilWar #Armyhistory In February 1862, Brigadier General Henry H. Sibley ...
03/27/2020

26-28 MARCH 1862 - BATTLE OF GLORIETA PASS - #CivilWar #Armyhistory

In February 1862, Brigadier General Henry H. Sibley led a rebel force of 3,700 men that he called the "Army of New Mexico" north along the Rio Grande from El Paso, Texas, toward Fort Craig, south of Albuquerque, where 1,250 U.S. Army regulars and over 1,000 recently raised New Mexico volunteers and militia had gathered under the command of Colonel Edward R. S. Canby. The invaders intended to make New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and perhaps even California, part of the Confederacy.

On 26 March, the Confederate advance guard clashed with Colorado mounted volunteer infantry at Apache Canyon as both armies deployed. Two days later a skirmish near Pigeon's Ranch erupted into a major engagement. Although the rebels forced the Federal troops from the field, Major John M. Chivington led regular and volunteer cavalry and infantry in an attack on the Confederate rear that destroyed the enemy supply train. This negated the rebels' tactical victory, and forced Sibley to abandon the campaign.

The U.S. forces pursued the defeated rebel army for several days but did not attempt to bring on another battle. Nonetheless, the Confederates, lacking supplies, endured a punishing retreat to El Paso, and eventually to San Antonio, Texas.

The far western territories of New Mexico and Arizona represented the most remote area of operations during the American Civil War.

ALSO SEE

https://history.army.mil/html/books/075/75-3/index.html https://history.army.mil/html/books/075/75-3/index.html

The Spring 2020 edition of the award winning Army History Magazine is now available! Visit this link for a free PDF down...
03/26/2020

The Spring 2020 edition of the award winning Army History Magazine is now available!

Visit this link for a free PDF download
https://history.army.mil/armyhistory/AH-Magazine/2020AH_spring/index.html

In the Spring 2020 issue of Army History, we are excited to offer two engaging articles, an interesting look at an Army artist, an update on microartifact installation at the National Museum of the United States Army (NMUSA), a quality selection of book reviews, and comments from our executive director and chief historian.
#Armyhistory #ArmyMuseums #ArmyArt #USArmy #TRADOC

26 MARCH 1943 - SECOND LIEUTENANT ELSIE OTT, ARMY NURSE CORPS - #WWII #TBT #Armyhistory #ArmyNurseCorps #WomensHistoryMo...
03/26/2020

26 MARCH 1943 - SECOND LIEUTENANT ELSIE OTT, ARMY NURSE CORPS - #WWII #TBT #Armyhistory #ArmyNurseCorps #WomensHistoryMonth

On this date in 1943, Army Nurse Corps (ANC) Second Lieutenant Elsie Ott became the first woman to receive the U.S. Air Medal. Stationed in India with the U.S. Army Air Forces, she was assigned to an air evacuation unit. On 17 January 1943, within about twenty-four hours of arriving at her new unit, Lieutenant Ott was aboard an aircraft in route from Karachi, India, to Washington, D.C., with five patients bound for Walter Reed Army Hospital. She was a member of the flight crew that made the first ever intercontinental evacuation of patient by aircraft. Counting intermediate stops, the flight took one week, whereas evacuation by hospital ship would have taken about three months. During the flight, Lieutenant Ott kept detailed notes that improved patient care as the Army continued to develop its innovative aeromedical evacuation procedures. This was the first aerial evacuation flight in nursing history. It was also the pioneer movement of transporting wounded soldiers by air over such a great distance (11,000 miles). For her meritorious service, Lieutenant Ott became the first Army nurse and first female soldier awarded the Air Medal.

The Air Medal was instituted in 1942 and is awarded for acts of heroism or meritorious service while in flight.

ALSO SEE

https://history.army.mil/html/bookshelves/resmat/wwii/prologuePTO/default/sec01.html

https://history.army.mil/html/books/072/72-5/index.html

https://history.army.mil/html/books/010/10-24/index.html

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Please send any inquiries directly to CMH at [email protected] The U.S. Army Center of Military History has three divisions—History, Field Programs, and Museums. All have a presence at Fort Lesley J. McNair in Washington, D.C. The Museum Division also operates two storage and support facilities, Museum Support Center — Belvoir at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and Museum Support Center — Anniston at Anniston Army Dept. Alabama. The Army’s core art and historical collection is stored at Fort Belvoir. The future National Museum of the U.S. Army also will be located at Fort Belvoir. The U.S. Army and Heritage Center at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, operates a rotating exhibits gallery and houses archives and photographs in its Military History Institute. Other Army documents are housed at the National Archives. The Army Historical Foundation is a 501(c)(3) private not-for-profit educational organization, founded in 1983, located in Arlington, Virginia. Among other activities, it is conducting fundraising for the proposed National Museum of the U.S. Army.

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