MNopedia: "Race and Policing in the Twin Cities"
From MNopedia: The history of law enforcement in the Twin Cities, as in the rest of the United States, has been deeply influenced by race. Since the early twentieth century, many Minnesotans of color have responded to racial targeting and police brutality by forming community organizations and citizen patrols; others have served as officers themselves and grappled with racial inequality inside the police force. Image: St. Paul Police Deputy James S. Griffin, ca. 1960s. Minnesota Historical Society Photograph Collection. https://www.mnopedia.org/race-and-policing-twin-cities