UCR Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences

UCR Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences We are the UCR Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences! Departmental news, specimens from our museum, and recent discoveries in earth science will be posted here.

We are the UCR Department of Earth Sciences! Departmental news, specimens from our museum, and recent discoveries in earth science will be posted here.

#ShakeOut at UCRiverside
10/17/2019

#ShakeOut at UCRiverside

This past weekend at the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in Phoenix, our very own Nic Barth received the GS...
09/24/2019

This past weekend at the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in Phoenix, our very own Nic Barth received the GSA/ExxonMobil Field Camp Excellence Award. Nic almost singlehandedly restarted our summer field program since joining the faculty in 2014, and it is a testament to his dedication and high standards that it is gaining national attention after only a few short years. Congratulations, Nic!

Check out the research Dr. Ghosh is doing in response to the Ridgecrest Earthquakes that occurred on July 4th and 5th.
08/14/2019
UC Riverside

Check out the research Dr. Ghosh is doing in response to the Ridgecrest Earthquakes that occurred on July 4th and 5th.

It took a 7.1 earthquake for scientists to realize this fault line existed, and now they fear it could cause a “big one.” Abhijit Ghosh, an associate professor of geophysics at UC Riverside, is racing to understand the unnamed fault to help officials prepare for the next major shake.

Check it out! One of our graduate students, Jen Humphreys, is on the  Nautilus expedition to the Pacific Remote Islands ...
07/06/2019

Check it out! One of our graduate students, Jen Humphreys, is on the Nautilus expedition to the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument.

How do art, science, and lava all come together? Jennifer Humphreys can tell you! As a second year graduate student at @ucriversideofficial Jen studies the chemical evolution of magma within the lithosphere and does detective work to reveal what the composition of volcanic rocks can tell us about Earth's interior. But, Jen has not always been on the geology path; her first Bachelor degree was in Visual and Dramatic Arts! This training was an important part of her path, helping hone Jen's visual-spatial skills and observational skills. Learn more about how Jen combines her talents and training into her research here: www.nautiluslive.org/people/Jennifer-Humphrey. On our Nautilus expedition to the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument Jen is a science watchstander making geologic observations and assisting with rock samples in the lab. Learn more about what it is like to come to sea for the first time as geologist Jen takes over the #NautilusLive Instagram Story today.

Dr. Stephen Kane is giving a the Cosmic Thursday talk today! Come by and learn about "The Planet We Could Not Imagine" i...
05/23/2019
Cosmic Thursdays – Public Talk – May 23

Dr. Stephen Kane is giving a the Cosmic Thursday talk today! Come by and learn about "The Planet We Could Not Imagine" in Bourns Hall #A265 at 6:30 PM

COSMIC THURSDAYS, a series of public and free talks on astronomy. The talks are designed with the general audience in mind. They are fun, easy to understand, and engaging. Date: Thursday, May 23 – …

Yesterday, UCR students got some hands-on field experience, learning about magnetotellurics with the EarthScope MT array...
05/21/2019

Yesterday, UCR students got some hands-on field experience, learning about magnetotellurics with the EarthScope MT array! Thank you to all who made this experience possible!

UC Riverside
04/07/2019
UC Riverside

UC Riverside

“It gives me an interest that isn’t collecting cats.” Andy Ridgwell, a professor of geology, has a particularly plush collection in his #UCR office that you may want to see.

Learn about why Dr. Heather Ford decided to become a geophysicist on "Humans of Earthscope"!
02/01/2019
Heather Ford | Earthscope

Learn about why Dr. Heather Ford decided to become a geophysicist on "Humans of Earthscope"!

  “I can’t recall why I decided to become an earth scientist, but from the age of 5 or 6, I was fascinated by rocks. I grew up in Michigan, so we spent a lot of time on the lake, just walking on the beach. I’d pick up a stone and ask my father how it was made. My parents weren’t geologists....

Needing help with your resume and CV ? Come and get some help from Dr. Heather Ford this Monday!
02/01/2019

Needing help with your resume and CV ? Come and get some help from Dr. Heather Ford this Monday!

We hope that everyone has been having a great quarter so far!

With upcoming job openings, we hope you are taking the time to think about your future success.

For those of you seeking employment before or after graduation, now is the time to refine your resumes and CV's to give yourselves the best opportunity in finding a job.

This Monday, GSO is offering a resume and CV workshop to help you prepare for job applications. This is an opportunity to get feedback and advice on how to professionally present yourself.

Join us for coffee and cookies while associate professor Heather Ford discusses the qualities in professional resumes and effective CV's.

We will be meeting on February 4th from 2-4 pm in Geology 1444. This is an open time for you to stop by and get advice on the job application process.

If you would like us to review and help revise your resume or CV, then feel free to bring either an electronic or physical copy.

Having a second opinion on your resume can greatly improve your chances of getting an interview and landing a job.

We welcome everyone to this event and hope you take advantage of this opportunity!

01/16/2019
The Geology Student Organization at UCR

Come to the AEG meeting TODAY to meet Deborah Green and learn more about "How to Build a Geology Career You Love".

The Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists (AEG) Meeting TODAY, Wednesday, Jan. 16th!

Meet Deborah Green, 2018-2019 Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer in Applied Geology, over coffee and cookies from 2 pm-2:30 pm at Geology 2460P, BEES Conference Room

GSO members, undergrads, and graduate students have been invited to meet with Deborah Green at 2 pm. Anyone interested in pursuing a career in geology is encouraged to come!

This is an excellent opportunity to ask questions about professional geologist work and to get advice on career development after graduation while enjoying coffee, tea, and cookies. No RSVP required, just meet us at Geology 2460P in the BEES Conference Room.

We hope you take advantage of this unique opportunity! Right after meeting with Deborah, we will head to Pierce 2330 for her presentation.

"How to Build a Geology Career You Love" presented by Deborah Green, MS at 3 pm in Pierce 2330

This talk is sponsored by AEG and the Geological Society of America (GSA). This presentation covers the many options available for work in environmental and engineering geology and how to apply the knowledge we gain from a research-oriented institution to life after graduation.

"Let's Talk: A Conversation on How We Communicate about Science" from 5:30 pm-8:30 pm at Pinnacle Peak Steakhouse presented by Deborah Green, MS

Following the 3 pm lecture, we will be carpooling to Pinnacle Peak Steakhouse in Colton to attend the monthly AEG meeting. We will listen to Deborah Green cover the challenges of conversing with non-scientists about science, and the necessity of facing those challenges head on.

The meeting will take place on Wednesday, January 16th at Pinnacle Peak Steakhouse located at 2533 La Cadena Drive South, Colton, CA 92324.

Students pay $15 with RSVP and proof of valid student ID. The Earth Science Department will reimburse student dinner with proof of receipt. The cost without a RSVP is $35 (RSVP deadline on Tues, Jan. 15th).

For dining options, there is a choice of a steak, salmon, pork ribs, chicken, or vegetarian meal.

This is a great opportunity to network with local geoscience professionals through AEG. We hope to see you there!

11/06/2018
The Geology Student Organization at UCR

The IGS November meeting is tomorrow!

Hello everyone!

The Inland Geological Society's November meeting is TOMORROW, Nov. 7!

Tomorrow's meeting is all about employment! Jeff Fitzsimmons is an engineering geologist at Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board. He will be discussing employment opportunities, applications, interviews, job expectations, etc. essentially, everything you need to know / do to get hired!

The meeting will take place at the Jurupa Mountains Discovery Center. There will be a social hour beginning at 6 pm, and the talk will start around 7 pm until about 8 pm.

Please make sure you RSVP to Jessie Bagby at [email protected] by 5 pm TODAY (11/6) if you plan on attending. Dinner is $7 for students.

If you want to go but don't have a ride, then you can carpool with us! E-mail me by 3 pm tomorrow (11/7) at [email protected] if you need a ride to tomorrow's meeting.

This is a great opportunity to clarify any questions, network, and to better prepare yourself when searching for a job in the field.

We hope you all take advantage of this opportunity!

UCR Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences's cover photo
10/31/2018

UCR Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences's cover photo

Get ready to ShakeOut... come out to the ShakeOut booth
10/18/2018

Get ready to ShakeOut... come out to the ShakeOut booth

ShakeOut booth is in full swing. Come out near coffee beans and take a look.
10/17/2018

ShakeOut booth is in full swing. Come out near coffee beans and take a look.

10/16/2018

Don't forget -- Hewett Club, ShakeOut Edition Speaker is @USGS scientist Dr. Katherine Kendrick who will be talking about the San Andreas fault through the San Gorgonio Pass! -- TODAY at 3 PM, WCH 138!

The Great ShakeOut California Earthquake Drill is this week. The Earth Sciences Department's - Hewett Club has a Special...
10/16/2018

The Great ShakeOut California Earthquake Drill is this week. The Earth Sciences Department's - Hewett Club has a Special Edition: ShakeOut Speaker TODAY! Dr. Katherine Kendrick from USGS give a talk, focusing on the San Andreas Fault through the San Gorgonio Pass structural knot. ALL ARE WELCOME!! -- When: 3 PM - Where: UCR Winston Chung Hall, Room 138

TODAY -- "Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan" Come watch the movie followed by a Q&A on "The Physics of Star Trek" by Dr. S...
10/12/2018
UCR ARTS

TODAY -- "Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan" Come watch the movie followed by a Q&A on "The Physics of Star Trek" by Dr. Stephen Kane (UCR Earth Sciences Dept) & Dr. Mario De Leo (UCR Astronomy Dept) at 7 PM at UCR ARTS. More info here: https://artsblock.ucr.edu/Film/star-trek-ii

Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan is fondly regarded as being the closest in spirit to the 1966-69 TV series that spawned it. Admiral Kirk (William Shatner) escapes the tedium of a desk job to join Mr. Spock (Leonard Nimoy) and Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy (DeForest Kelley) on another space mission. Whil...

10/09/2018

Don't forget! Dr. Mark Panning from @NASAJPL is giving a talk on planetary seismology at 3 PM today in Winston Chung Hall, room 138. Tuesday Tea Time will be at 2:30 PM before the talk in the Geology Hallway. Come and listen!

Do you like "Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan"? Come watch the movie followed by a Q&A on "The Physics of Star Trek" by D...
10/09/2018
Riverside, California | City of Arts & Innovation | Calendar of Events

Do you like "Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan"? Come watch the movie followed by a Q&A on "The Physics of Star Trek" by Dr. Stephen Kane (UCR Earth Sciences) & Dr. Mario De Leo (UCR Astronomy Dept) THIS Friday, 7 PM, UCR ARTS Building. More info here: https://riversideca.gov/calendar/item.aspx?id=20357

Screening AND Discussion: Friday, October 12, 2018, 7pm“Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan”“Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan” is fondly regarded as being the closest in spirit to the 1966-69 TV series that spawned it. Admiral Kirk (William Shatner) escapes the tedium of a desk job to join Mr. Sp...

10/09/2018

Tomorrow is our 1st Hewett Club Lecture of the year. All are welcome! Dr. Mark Panning from NASA Jet Propulsion Lab will talk about "Planetary seismology: Prospects for a new golden age on Mars, icy ocean worlds, and our own moon" - Tuesday Oct 9th @ 3PM, Winston Chung Hall 138

10/05/2018

Today we start our weekly Department BBQ of the school year! Come to the UCR Geology Building courtyard at 12 pm TODAY for some food and meet people from the department! All are welcome!

UCR Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences's cover photo
09/26/2018

UCR Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences's cover photo

One of our grad students, Gillian Goldhagen, out doing fieldwork in Wyoming, takes a day to visit a local elementary and...
09/26/2018

One of our grad students, Gillian Goldhagen, out doing fieldwork in Wyoming, takes a day to visit a local elementary and middle school and talk about tectonic plate boundaries and seismic waves (Showing Primary and Secondary waves with a slinky!). Great job!!

09/16/2018

One of our grad students, Jerlyn Światłowski, has taken over the @AmericanGeophysicalUnion Instagram over the next few days. Follow her on the GPS field work she did this summer with Gareth Funning , Rachel Terry, and Mike Floyd! IG: @americangeophysicalunion

Last one: Schultz #1348, Goethite from Georgia, USA. Goethite is normally black and dull, but a few places produce gorge...
09/10/2018

Last one: Schultz #1348, Goethite from Georgia, USA. Goethite is normally black and dull, but a few places produce gorgeous rainbows like this. Humans have used it for a very long time as the pigment brown ochre. #MineralMonday

Schultz #285: Pyrophyllite from California. This soft, pearly mineral forms in hydothermal veins and schistose metamorph...
09/10/2018

Schultz #285: Pyrophyllite from California. This soft, pearly mineral forms in hydothermal veins and schistose metamorphic rock. It's used as tailor's chalk, gasket material, a companion to clay in bricks, and more. #MineralMonday

Schultz #1268: Larimar, a rare variety of pectolite only found in the Dominican Republic. It's a secondary mineral formi...
09/10/2018

Schultz #1268: Larimar, a rare variety of pectolite only found in the Dominican Republic. It's a secondary mineral forming in cavities in volcanic rocks. The blue comes from cooper atoms replacing calcium. Store and display it in the dark—light and heat make the color fade. #MineralMonday

UCR Earth Sciences Museum #333: Stibnite from Hunan Province, ChinaSome of you may know stibnite by a different name—koh...
09/10/2018

UCR Earth Sciences Museum #333: Stibnite from Hunan Province, China
Some of you may know stibnite by a different name—kohl. Historically and traditionally, grinding stibnite into powder and mixing it with fat to make a paste is one way to make true kohl as found in the MENAHT region and Horn of Africa to South Asia. It's said to have health benefits, but contains antimony, which is toxic. Given this, we do not recommend using it.
True kohl cannot be imported to or sold in the US due to lead toxicity from the other traditional version (galena-based), so makeup marketed as "kohl" in the US are something different.
#MineralMonday

UCR Earth Sciences Museum Schultz #457: Tanzanite (1 of 2 crystals)Tanzanite is a trichroic variety of zoisite. It can a...
09/10/2018

UCR Earth Sciences Museum Schultz #457: Tanzanite (1 of 2 crystals)
Tanzanite is a trichroic variety of zoisite. It can appear blue, violet, or burgundy depending on the angle and lighting conditions. Blue is more apparent under fluourescent lighting, while violet is stronger under incandescent.
#MineralMonday

UCR Earth Sciences Museum Schultz #393 is a nickel-iron meteorite.The pattern you see is called the Widmanstätten patter...
09/10/2018

UCR Earth Sciences Museum Schultz #393 is a nickel-iron meteorite.
The pattern you see is called the Widmanstätten pattern. You won't be able to see it immediately if you saw through a nickel-iron meteorite. To bring it out, you need to etch it in nitric acid. It's there because two different ratios of nickel-iron alloy interleaved as they grew together.
Edit: See Wilf's comment below!
#MineralMonday

UCR Earth Sciences Museum Schultz #448 is native silver from New South Wales in Australia.It doesn't look silvery right ...
09/10/2018

UCR Earth Sciences Museum Schultz #448 is native silver from New South Wales in Australia.
It doesn't look silvery right now because it was stored with other native element specimens—including sulfur. Sulfur offgassing tarnishes silver. Thankfully it's easily cleaned, and simply needs to be kept isolated from sulfurous minerals after that.
#MineralMonday

UCR Earth Science Museum # 469: Eudialyte from RussiaThe large, red eudialyte crystals are in a green fuschite matrix. T...
09/10/2018

UCR Earth Science Museum # 469: Eudialyte from Russia
The large, red eudialyte crystals are in a green fuschite matrix. They formed in an alkaline igneous rock. Keep your eudialyte specimens away from acid, as they will dissolve.
#MineralMonday

UCR Earth Sciences Museum Schultz #1224: Chalcedony from the Nashik Mine in India.This mine produces a variety of colors...
09/10/2018

UCR Earth Sciences Museum Schultz #1224: Chalcedony from the Nashik Mine in India.
This mine produces a variety of colors of stalactitic chalcedony like this. Chalcedony is not a discrete mineral, as it's made of interbedded layers of microcrystalline quartz and moganite. Many varieties have their own names—particularly in gemology—such as onyx, agate, chrysoprase, and heliotrope.
#MineralMonday

UCR Earth Sciences Museum Schultz #548: Pyromorphite from ChinaPyromorphite is a member of the apatite group. It's a sec...
09/10/2018

UCR Earth Sciences Museum Schultz #548: Pyromorphite from China
Pyromorphite is a member of the apatite group. It's a secondary mineral formed in oxidized zones in lead deposits.
#MineralMonday

It's #MineralMonday, so time to share the rest of the photos from the Schultz collection talk. First up is Schultz #282,...
09/10/2018

It's #MineralMonday, so time to share the rest of the photos from the Schultz collection talk. First up is Schultz #282, a pyrite disc from Indiana.
Pyrite displays a remarkable number of mineral forms. Discs, a.k.a. suns, grow radially under pressure in shale interbedded in coal.

Some rather impressive earthquake-induced mass wasting!
09/07/2018

Some rather impressive earthquake-induced mass wasting!

Before/after views of a landslide area from yesterday's magnitude 6.6 quake in Hokkaido, Japan.

Check out this new paper about the TCN the UCR Earth Sciences Museum has joined! The graphic really demonstrates the vas...
09/06/2018

Check out this new paper about the TCN the UCR Earth Sciences Museum has joined! The graphic really demonstrates the vastness of untapped data stored in museum collections. We'll be adding even more!

Quantifying the unpublished, "dark" data in museum collections, a new study led by UCMP director Charles Marshall for the EPICC collaboration and funded through iDigBio. Investment in collections can reap significant rewards. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/14/9/20180431

Last one for the day: UCR Earth Sciences Museum # 1232: Wulfenite from Rawley Mine in ArizonaThis molybdate is a seconda...
09/05/2018

Last one for the day: UCR Earth Sciences Museum # 1232: Wulfenite from Rawley Mine in Arizona
This molybdate is a secondary mineral typically formed in oxidizing zones of lead deposits. Rarely, it precipitates from hot volcanic fumarole gas.
The translucent, tabular crystals of wulfenite on this specimen are very thin and fragile. The druzy crystals coating the surface are mimetite, an arsenate.
Wulfenite ranges in color from yellow-orange (seen here) to orange-red (as in Red Cloud Mine on the CA–AZ border) to brown.

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Geology Building And Pierce Hall, UCR
Riverside, CA
92521

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UC Riverside Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Learn more at: https://earthsciences.ucr.edu/

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Monday 09:00 - 16:00
Tuesday 09:00 - 16:00
Wednesday 09:00 - 16:00
Thursday 09:00 - 16:00
Friday 09:00 - 16:00

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(951) 827-3434

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UC Riverside Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences

We will share news and updates about the department; Hewett Speaker Series talks, museum news, guest speaker talks, recently published papers, conference updates, and recent discoveries in earth science!

We offer undergraduate (B.S.) in Geology and Geophysics and graduate degrees (M.S. and Ph.D.) in Geological Sciences.

Our department is very diverse lines of research with 25 faculty and specialists. Topics of research include:


  • Paleontology, Paleobiology, Paleoecology

  • Earthquake Processes and Geophysics

  • Active Tectonics

  • Neotectonics and Structural Seismology

  • Global Climate and Environmental Change

  • Sedimentary Geochemistry and Organic Chemistry

  • Petrology, Geochemistry, Geothermics

  • Stratigraphy

  • Biogeography, Landscape Ecology and Conservation Biology

  • Astrobiology

  • Exoplanets and Planetary Science
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    Comments

    Photos of future Earth Science chair Michael McKibben and fellow undergrad Kazuo Furukawa determining station locations for gravity measurements south of Salton City during UCR Winter Field Geophysics, March 1976.
    "The mechanism of the vertical circulation of the waters of the oceans". The reason for the formation of hydrogen sulfide in the Black Sea. Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences https://vk.com/ioran The wind waves enrich the water with oxygen only to a depth of several tens of meters of the seas and oceans surface, while the whirlpools deliver the water enriched with oxygen to a depth of more than 10 km. (Mariana Trench) How does this happen: The waters of the lakes, seas and oceans of the northern hemisphere rotate counterclockwise, and the waters of the southern hemisphere rotate clockwise, forming giant whirlpools. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_gyre As is known, everything that rotates, including whirlpools, has the property of a gyroscope (whirligig) to maintain the vertical position of the axis in space, regardless of the rotation of the Earth. If you look at the Earth from the side of the Sun, the whirlpools, rotating with the Earth, overturn, due to which the whirlpools precess, resulting in a vertical movement of ocean water. http://goo.gl/AM5g1s The presented theory can easily be verified by relation between the oxygen content and the whirlpools rotation speed. Based on the map of the depths and currents of the seas and oceans. The higher the current velocity, the greater the oxygen content and the lower the hydrogen sulfide content. https://youtu.be/ihM1I5r_MUg https://youtu.be/X6PavdKXIE8 List of seas with low oxygen content: Black Sea. East of the Mediterranean. Gulf of Mexico. Norway fjords. As we see, whirlpools are involved not only in the horizontal circulation of the sea and ocean waters, but also in the vertical. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_zone_(ecology) https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ocean-dead-zones/ The coefficient of oxygen content can be expressed mathematically by the following formula O = V / G V - whirlpool rotation speed, km / h. G - depth of the reservoir, km. Black Sea 0.2 / 1200 = 0.00016 Sea of Okhotsk 1/800 = 0.0012 Vertical movement of ocean waters can be convincingly modeled using simple experience. For this, a half-filled vessel with a rotating liquid (bucket, tumbler, mixer) must be rotated around itself (in orbit). If the liquid in the bucket rotates to the right, the bucket around itself (in orbit) must be rotated to the left. http://bourabai.ru/articles/black_sea.htm Vertical and horizontal circulation is a vital fundamental law of nature, without which life in the ocean would be impossible. During the vertical and horizontal circulation, there are also side non-vital effects of nature: ebb and flow, seasonal sea-level rise, killer waves. Real-time sea current speed: http://portal.esimo.ru/portal https://www.ndbc.noaa.gov https://ru.nencom.com/spravochnik/energoresursy/globalnaya-onlayn-karta-vetrov http://fermi.jhuapl.edu/sat_ocean.html —————————————————————————————— Seasonal increase in the level of waters of the seas and oceans. Institute of Water Problems, RAS https://vk.com/club134348321 The waters of the lakes, seas and oceans of the northern hemisphere rotate counterclockwise, and the waters of the southern hemisphere rotate clockwise, forming cyclonic gyres. The main cause of rotation of the whirlpools are local winds, flowing into the seas and oceans of the river and the deflecting force of Coriolis. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_gyre And the higher the speed of the winds, the higher the speed of rotation of the whirlpools, and as a result, the higher the centrifugal force of the whirlpools, thereby increasing the water level of the seas and oceans. And the lower the speed of rotation of the whirlpools, the lower the level of water, seas and oceans. https://youtu.be/ihM1I5r_MUg The speed of currents along the perimeter of the seas and oceans is not the same everywhere and depends on the depth of the coast. In the shallow part of the seas and oceans, the flow moves fast, and in the deep water part of the seas and oceans the flow moves slowly .. Seasonal rise in the water level is observed not along the entire coast of the seas and oceans, but only on those coasts where the high angular velocity of the currents and, as a result, the high centrifugal force of the water. (Centrifugal force F = mv2 / r). On straight coasts, where currents do not have an angular velocity, the water level does not rise. Real-time sea current speed http://portal.esimo.ru/portal https://www.ndbc.noaa.gov https://ru.nencom.com/spravochnik/energoresursy/globalnaya-onlayn-karta-vetrov The waters of the Gulf of Finland rotate counterclockwise, forming a whirlpool in the form of an ellipse. And when the seasonal south-westerly winds unwind the whirlpool to 5 km / h, the centrifugal force of the whirlpool rises, so that on the east coast of the Gulf of Finland the water level rises to 30 cm. A similar pattern of seasonal increase in water levels is observed in all lakes, seas and oceans .. The average depth of the Gulf of Finland is about 50 meters, on the east coast is about 5 meters, in the west of the bay it is about 100 meters, for this reason the linear and angular velocity of currents on the east coast of the Gulf of Finland is much higher (as much as the depth of the coast increases current velocity) .. In the Gulf of Finland, the seasonal increase in water levels has two peaks: in August-September and in December-January and in time they coincide with the season of south-westerly winds. The speed of the current in the Gulf of Finland reaches from 2 to 17 km / hour, and the maximum speed of the current on Earth reaches 30 km / hour, the wind speed is more than 100 km / hour. http://goo.gl/eYVTo6 http://esimo.oceanography.ru/esp1/index.php?sea_code=1§ion=6&menu_code=1734 The waters of the North Sea rotate counterclockwise, forming a huge whirlpool. And when seasonal northwestern storm winds unleash a whirlpool (up to 20 km / h on the southern coast), the centrifugal force of the whirlpool rises, making the level on the southern coast of the North Sea up to 5 meters. (Storm surge 2.5 meters, centrifugal surge 2.5 meters). https://de.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:North_Sea_Currents.svg https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Sea_flood_of_1953 The waters of the Caspian Sea rotate counterclockwise, forming a whirlpool in the form of an ellipse. And when the seasonal winds and the flood river Volga unleash a whirlpool, the centrifugal force of the whirlpool rises, making the water level up to 1 meter on the north coast of the Caspian Sea. The average depth of the Caspian Sea is about 200 meters, on the north coast about 5 meters, on the south coast - about 500m. Due to this, in the north of the Caspian Sea the speed of the current increases from 1 to 10 km / h. In the Caspian Sea, the peak of the seasonal rise in water level is observed in June-August and coincides in time with the season of winds and high water of the Volga River. During a drought over the Volga River basin, the level of the Caspian Sea does not rise. http://tapemark.narod.ru/more/06.png http://goo.gl/47tXq2 In the Bay of Bengal, in the season of monsoon winds, the whirlpool speed rises to 10 km / h, making the seasonal rise in water levels up to 1.2 meters. http://www.aziya-tur.ru/bengal%27skii-zaliv.php Seasonal increase in the level of the Black Sea (up to 40 cm) is most pronounced in the southeastern part of the sea, where in summer the angular velocity of the currents reaches its maximum value. http://tapemark.narod.ru/more/07.html The assumption that the cause of the seasonal rise in the water level may be the pressure of the atmosphere, the flow of the rivers, the temperature difference and the salinity of the waters do not hold water, these factors may raise the water level by a few cm, but no more. The presented theory can be easily verified by relating the velocity of the currents to the level of the seas and oceans. (Based on a map of depths and currents, seas and oceans). https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annual_cycle_of_sea_level_height https://research.csiro.au/slrwavescoast/sea-level/sea-level-change/ http://www.okeanavt.ru/tainiokeana/1066mifosrednemurovne.html —————————————————————————————— High and low tides are the result of the earth rotation and of the whirlpools. Department of Oceanology, MSU https://vk.com/ocean_msu There is a strict pattern - tides are formed not along the entire coast of the seas and oceans, but only on those coasts with a high current velocity, and the higher the velocity of the currents, the higher the amplitude of the tidal wave. No tides are formed on these coasts where currents do not have a high velocity. The waters of the lakes, seas and oceans of the northern hemisphere rotate counterclockwise, and the waters of the southern hemisphere rotate clockwise, forming giant whirlpools. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_gyre As is well known, everything that rotates, including whirlpools, has the property of a gyroscope (whirligig) to maintain the vertical position of the axis in space, regardless of the rotation of the Earth. If you look at the Earth from the side of the Sun, the whirlpools, rotating with the Earth, overturn, twice a day, due to which the whirlpools precess (sway by 1-2 degrees) and reflect a tidal wave from themselves along the entire perimeter of the whirlpool. http://goo.gl/AM5g1s https://goo.gl/images/M4SJq8 The waters of the White Sea rotate counterclockwise, forming a huge whirlpool-gyroscope, which, while precessing, reflects a tidal wave along the entire perimeter of the White Sea. A similar pattern of tides is observed in all lakes, seas, and oceans. Sailing Directions of the White Sea https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sailing_Directions http://tapemark.narod.ru/more/22.png The waters of the Mediterranean Sea rotate counterclockwise, forming tides 10-15 cm high. But in the Gulf of Gabes, off the coast of Tunisia, the height of the tides reaches three meters, and sometimes more, and this is considered one of the mysteries of nature. But at the same time, a whirlpool rotates in the Gulf of Gabes, precessing and reflecting an additional tidal wave. https://youtu.be/ihM1I5r_MUg The tidal wave in the Amazon River is created a huge planetary whirlpool with a diameter of several thousand kilometers, rotating between South America and North Africa, covering the mouth of the Amazon River. The pattern of tidal wave movement over the perimeter of the North Atlantic planetary whirlpool. https://youtu.be/ZEhm_ONTQKc The tidal wave length depends on the whirlpool diameter. And the tidal wave height depends on the whirlpool rotation speed, the Earth orbital velocity, and the whirlpool tilting time (12 hours). А = V1•V2/t where: A - tidal wave amplitude (precession angle). V1 - whirlpool rotation speed. V2 - the Earth orbital velocity. t - whirlpool tilting time (12 hours). Table of the dependence of the amplitude of the tides on the speed of the current, on any coast. 1 km / h - 1 meter 5 km / h - 5 meter 10 km / h - 10 meter 15 km / h - 15 meter The amplitude of the tides also depends on the size of the whirlpool, the amount of water under the whirlpool, the distance from the coast to the whirlpool and the direction of flow (north, south, west, east). The current, which moves along the coast, reflects a tidal wave both towards the coast and towards the open sea. The whirlpool theory of tides can easily be verified by relating the height of the tidal wave to the speed of rotation of the whirlpools. From the height of the tides, you can determine the speed of the current along the coast, based on the atlas of sea currents in real time: http://portal.esimo.ru/portal https://www.ndbc.noaa.gov https://ru.nencom.com/spravochnik/energoresursy/globalnaya-onlayn-karta-vetrov http://fermi.jhuapl.edu/sat_ocean.html —————————————————————————————— Killer Waves The official group of the Institute of Earth Sciences SFU https://vk.com/ogbarannikova A tidal wave moving across the ocean is called a soliton. When a soliton collides with the coastline of the continent, ebbs and flows are formed. When solitons collide, two adjacent whirlpools, a killer wave is formed. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Killer Waves This can be checked by throwing two stones at the same time in a bath of water. When a soliton collides, the resulting killer wave foams and a larger wave pulls a smaller wave somewhat. You can create a half-meter-killer wave with a duration of 0.5 seconds, if two divers simultaneously jumped with a “bomb” into the reservoir from a height of 2 meters, with a distance between them of 3 meters. If you throw two pieces of sugar into a glass of tea at the same time and a killer wave forms there. The mechanism of formation of a tidal wave in rivers and killer waves in the oceans is similar, and the height of the tidal wave in a river depends on the speed of the flow of water in a river. https://goo.gl/images/Tm13py https://goo.gl/images/amdjwj The location of the possible stoning of the killer waves can be predicted from the whirlpool charts and, accordingly, to lay routes. An approaching killer wave or tsunami can be partially neutralized by creating a series of oncoming waves, torpedoes or projectiles. If two waves do not collide with each other, then they freely walk on the ocean, and they are called solitons or Rossby waves. "Three sisters are a collision of a soliton with three storm waves .. Solitons, reflected around themselves in whirlpools, colliding with storm waves, create a killer wave and are the main cause of ships wreck. And knowing the distribution schedule of solitons by whirlpools, one should accordingly choose the time and route of movement in the seas and oceans. The perimeter of the seas and oceans, I believe, is the most dangerous place for anchorage and movement of ships, especially where there is a high whirlpool speed. The center of the whirlpool, I believe, is the safest place to wait out bad weather, and it is advisable to install a buoy in the center of the whirlpool. https://goo.gl/images/icF4zf The map shows the areas of the most frequent occurrence of killer waves. In the North Atlantic, killer waves form mainly along the perimeter of the North Atlantic planetary whirlpool, as a result of a collision of a tidal wave with storm waves (three sisters) .. http://www.freegrab.net/Tide%20waves.gif The animation shows how in the area of the Bermuda Triangle, as a result of the collision of tidal waves reflected by the North Atlantic and South Atlantic planetary whirlpools, a killer wave is formed .. The clock set on the animation shows that killer waves in the Bermuda Triangle are formed twice a day at 12 and 24 hours. Based on the demonstrated animation, you can make a calendar of formation of killer waves not only for future years but also for previous ones. In the season of long, eastern winds in the north of the Sea of Okhotsk and floods of the rivers flowing into the Penzhinsky Bay, the current speed in the north of the Sea of Okhotsk increases several times, due to which, in the north of the Sea of Okhotsk, the water level, the amplitude of tides and killer waves increases. The current, which moves along the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, reflects a tidal wave both towards the coast and towards the open sea. (South). https://goo.gl/images/u3AsBQ The discovery was published in the Russian-German scientific peer-reviewed journal “Eastern European Scientific Journal” No. 3/2015. Page 64. June http://www.auris-archiv.de/journal.html Scientific journal "NBICS-Science. Technologies" No. 4/2018. Page 104. (Nanotechnology Society of Russia) http://www.nanonewsnet.ru/news/2018/vyshel-chetvertyi-nomer-zhurnala-nbiks-naukatekhnologii Continued: The mechanism of the vertical circulation of the waters of the oceans. Forum Federal Target Program "World Ocean" http://okeany.com/forum/784.htm "Forum on the Flagship" http://vmf.net.ru/forums/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=2328 French Maritime Forum (Discussion). http://forummarine.forumactif.com/t9357-le-flux-et-reflux-est-le-resultat-de-la-rotation-de-la-terre English forum. "Weather/Earth sciences" https://www.wxforum.net/index.php?topic=35094.0