Hudson River Valley Institute

Hudson River Valley Institute The Hudson River Valley Institute at Marist College is the academic arm of the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area. Follow us on Twitter! @HRVInstitute

The Hudson River Valley is one of 49 Congressionally designated National Heritage Areas in the United States. As one of the most important regions in the United States, it is the fountainhead of a truly American identity. Recognizing the area's national value, Congress formed the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area in 1996 to recognize, to preserve, to protect, and to interpret the nationally-significant history and resources of the Valley for the benefit of the nation. Its mission is to study and to promote the Hudson River Valley and to provide educational resources for heritage tourists, scholars, elementary school educators, environmental organizations, the business community, and the general public. Its many projects include the publication of the Hudson River Valley Review and the management of a dynamic digital library and leading regional portal site. The Digital Library contains a collection of heritage sites, documents, organizations, lesson plans, and related links to guide you through the Hudson River Valley. Its content and portals are designed to draw people--electronically and physically--from around the world to the Hudson River Valley to experience its scenic, cultural, economic, and historical resources. The Hudson River Valley Institute is supported by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

The Hudson River Valley is one of 49 Congressionally designated National Heritage Areas in the United States. As one of the most important regions in the United States, it is the fountainhead of a truly American identity. Recognizing the area's national value, Congress formed the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area in 1996 to recognize, to preserve, to protect, and to interpret the nationally-significant history and resources of the Valley for the benefit of the nation. Its mission is to study and to promote the Hudson River Valley and to provide educational resources for heritage tourists, scholars, elementary school educators, environmental organizations, the business community, and the general public. Its many projects include the publication of the Hudson River Valley Review and the management of a dynamic digital library and leading regional portal site. The Digital Library contains a collection of heritage sites, documents, organizations, lesson plans, and related links to guide you through the Hudson River Valley. Its content and portals are designed to draw people--electronically and physically--from around the world to the Hudson River Valley to experience its scenic, cultural, economic, and historical resources. The Hudson River Valley Institute is supported by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Mission: The Hudson River Valley Institute, HRVI, is the center for the study and promotion of the Hudson River Valley. The goals of the Hudson River Valley Institute are to: • Be the central hub of information about the Hudson River Valley’s history, culture, economy, and environment. • Serve as the academic arm of the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area. • Provide educational resources of the Hudson River Valley to teachers and students in the Hudson River Valley through its Digital Library. • Promote the many dimensions of the Hudson River Valley to heritage tourists and heritage students. • Provide the gateway to other key websites with information about the Hudson River Valley as an on-line portal.

Operating as usual

On November 25, 1783, the last of the British soldiers evacuated the United States. The Revolution ended with the Treaty...
11/25/2020

On November 25, 1783, the last of the British soldiers evacuated the United States. The Revolution ended with the Treaty of Paris in September allowing the British time to organize their withdrawal which was set for noon in New York City, with Washington waiting just outside of the city. The signal for his entry was the lowering of the British Flag at modern day Battery Park. However the British played a bit of a prank on the Americans by greasing the flag pole with pig fat. Eventually, American soldier John Van Arsdale was able to climb the pole by nailing pieces of wood to the pole and climbing up on them. He tore the British flag down and replaced it with the American Flag. Shortly after, a triumphant General George Washington entered the city and marched down Broadway to the Battery. This was celebrated as an American holiday, complete with greased pole climbing until the Civil War when Lincoln called for Thanksgiving to be held on the last Thursday of November. The approximation of the two days diminished Evacuation Day’s celebrations.

Mount Gulian Historic Site
11/20/2020

Mount Gulian Historic Site

Thanksgiving is less than a week away! Unlike today, Thanksgiving did not fall on a fixed date until the middle of the 19th century and was instead declared individually by states. James F. Brown’s diaries note Thanksgiving falling anywhere between mid-November and late December throughout the 1830s and 1840s as shown by this page from the early 1841.

On November 19, 1939 construction began on the 1st presidential library in Hyde Park, NY for President Franklin Delano R...
11/19/2020

On November 19, 1939 construction began on the 1st presidential library in Hyde Park, NY for President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. It is built upon a land grant given to the purpose by FDR and his mother Sarah on the Springwood Estates. After two years of construction, it was opened and dedicated on June 30, 1941.

The purpose was to create an archive of the vast amount of paperwork that was resulting from his presidency which would only increase with FDR’s 3rd and 4th terms set against both the Great Depression and World War II. Previous to the tradition of the Presidential library, the notes, diaries, minutes of meetings among other important information from a president was left largely to chance. Some were held by the families, some dedicated to the Library of Congress. However, since its establishment a precedent has been set for all presidents to establish such a facility. This has greatly increased the access to further scholarship on the more recent presidents.

In addition to the library, there is also a museum and the home of Springwood that makes for a nice day trip.

Further Information:
https://www.fdrlibrary.org/

Image: Photo of the front of the Presidential Library

On November 16, 1776, Margaret Corbin and her husband fought to defend Fort Washington in Northern Manhattan. Forts Wash...
11/16/2020

On November 16, 1776, Margaret Corbin and her husband fought to defend Fort Washington in Northern Manhattan. Forts Washington and Lee, on the New Jersey side, protected entrance into the Hudson River Valley. General Howe of the British decided these were essential to take if Greater New York was to be pacified.

Made up mostly of Hessian troops, Howe had approximately 8,000 soldiers to assault the fort with. The Patriots were clearly outmatched, but still moments of bravery and heroism took place. Noteworthy among the Patriot heroes were Margaret Corbin. She cleaned, loaded and fired her husband's cannon after he was killed in battle. In doing so, she too was injured when she was hit in the arm, chest, and jaw by enemy fire. The Patriot forces surrendered and were marched through the streets of Manhattan to the jeers of the city’s loyalist population before being loaded on the dreaded prison ships, where over 2,000 died of disease, cold, or starvation in the bitter winter.

Because of her injuries she was released on parole. Life wasn’t easy though. She never gained the use of her left arm again and suffered terribly for the rest of her life. Yet her heroics were recognized first by the Executive Council of Pennsylvania and later by the Congressional Board of War that granted her a pension of half the monthly pay of a soldier in the Continental Army and a new set of clothes or its equivalent in cash. This made her the first woman in the United States to receive a military pension from Congress.

She died in Highland Falls, New York, on January 16, 1800, at the age of 48.Her actions live on as forming some of the key points in the legend of Molly Pitcher.

Suggested Reading: Lieberman, Joe (1999). "Amid the Demoralizing Loss at Fort Washington, Margaret Corbin Emerged as America's First Wartime Heroine". ProQuest (Military History).

Schenawolf, Harry, 2019. “Margaret Corbin: Before Molly Pitcher, Captain Molly Fired Her Husband’s Cannon When He Fell in Battle”.
http://www.revolutionarywarjournal.com/margaret-corbin-two-years-before-molly-pitcher-captain-molly-was-the-first-woman-to-take-a-soldiers-part-in-the-war-for-liberty/

Image: MOLLY PITCHER by George Alfred Williams. 1917. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/20297/20297-h/20297-h.htm

New Netherland Institute
11/15/2020

New Netherland Institute

Julie, Charly, and Steve had a grand time recording "Voyages of New Netherland." Tune in on November 17 at 5pm for the airing of the recorded portion plus a live Q & A with the audience.

https://www.facebook.com/events/456315562000560

On November 14, 1765, engineer and inventor Robert Fulton was born in Little Britain, PA. His major claim to fame came w...
11/14/2020

On November 14, 1765, engineer and inventor Robert Fulton was born in Little Britain, PA. His major claim to fame came with the development of the first commercially viable steamboat, the North River Steamboat (Clermont).

Steam power was already well known by the time he was a young man. He first learned about the idea in 1777 when he quite young but his early passions leaned toward painting. This was a talent that would provide money needed to support himself and his mother while also financing a trip to Europe. There his interest in engineering began with a particular interest in canal building for which he earned early patents for alternatives to the lock system. It was at this time that he also began to explore steam power ships.

He was in France with the coming of the French Revolution, where he exploring the ideas of a submarine. In this he built the Nautilus which was able to submerge for 17 minutes. Additionally, he came up with early torpedo designs. However, key to his development of a steamship, Fulton met Robert Livingston the U.S. Ambassador to France.

Returning home to the United States, Livingston and Fulton developed the North River Steamboat. In 1807 they made the 150-mile voyage from New York City to Albany in 32 hours with passengers onboard. With this success, he continued his steamboat development looking for viable options for sea and faster rivers.

He died in 1815 after saving a friend who had fell through the frozen ice of the Hudson. In this rescue he contracted pneumonia. He was 49 years old.

Further reading:
Robert Fulton, brief bio: https://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/documents/401021/1058093/FultonBio.pdf/c7ec073c-9e5d-4c49-86c6-9d12ab0328b5
The North River Steamship by Matthew Hittenmark. https://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/documents/401021/1058093/FultonClermont.pdf/766a62ae-8986-446e-926e-52115c779799

Image: Robert Fulton. Duyckinick, Evert A. Portrait Gallery of Eminent Men and Women in Europe and America. New York: Johnson, Wilson & Company, 1873.

On November 12, 1815, Elizabeth Cady Stanton was born in Johnstown, NY just outside of Albany. She was best known for ti...
11/12/2020

On November 12, 1815, Elizabeth Cady Stanton was born in Johnstown, NY just outside of Albany. She was best known for tireless work in the field of women’s rights with a particular focus on suffrage.

She was born to one of the richest men in the state who owned a large mansion with many servants. Unlike most women of the time, she was given many opportunities for an education. While she graduated from Union College and later the Troy Female Seminary, her thirst for education led her to read many of the philosophers that inspired her to rise above the expectations for her gender and want for more.

After marrying Henry Brewster Stanton, she spent time in Boston where she came into contact with many of the great reform minded people of the time. These relationships encouraged her political development and would become great allies in her battles to come. However, she returned to New York moving to Seneca Falls in the Finger Lake region of the state where her family expanded with several kids.

At the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, Elizabeth Cady-Stanton called upon her friends to come and debate the merits of female rights, key among those the right to vote. While there were many who worried this was a step too far, ultimately it became a seminal moment in the push for women’s suffrage as articulated in her authorship of the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments which was modeled on the U.S. Declaration of Independence’s lists of grievances, primarily that of liberty.

She would go on to become one of the greatest voices for women’s rights. She formed several organizations with her close friend Susan B. Anthony. They fought for suffrage during the post-Civil War Reconstruction and took the movement in radical directions as times. Additionally, her writing became a key force for change. She founded her newspaper called the Revolution and wrote many works on the history of Women’s Suffrage and even a critique of the role of women in the Bible.

Elizabeth Cady-Stanton died in New York City on October 26, 1902 due to heart failure, 18 years before women achieved the right to vote in the United States via the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

Further reading: Hudson River Valley Review Vol. 23, 2007. https://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/documents/401021/1102522/HRVR+23.2+full/02702d20-a051-401b-9e5b-7bfc89aa4677

The Suffragents: How Women Used Men to Get the Vote, Brooke Kroeger

Image: Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902). Circa 1880

The Soldiers Memorial Fountain in Poughkeepsie is an impeccably crafted cast iron fountain dedicated to Union soldiers k...
11/11/2020

The Soldiers Memorial Fountain in Poughkeepsie is an impeccably crafted cast iron fountain dedicated to Union soldiers killed during the Civil War. The monument was constructed shortly after the Civil War in July of 1870. The fountain was purchased from James, Beebe & Co., an Ironworks firm located in New York City. The design of the fountain is believed to be a combined emulation of various French artists, primarily Jean-Pierre-Victor Andre, from the mid-19th century.

The fountain is topped by a woman, and the base circled by four mermen wielding horned instruments. Based on the design of the woman topping the fountain, it seems that the figure is meant to represent Minerva, the Greek Goddess of wisdom, medicine, commerce, and war strategy. Minerva is commonly associated with war and strategy when depicted in mediums of art. The woman is seen to be revealing one breast, which is a common symbol for liberty among French artists. The mermen surrounding the bottom are likely to be complementing pieces to Minerva, and to further cement the symbolism of the piece. Furthermore, their horned instruments being pointed up into the air can symbolize heaven, and the hopeful thought that all of the lives lost during the Civil War did make it to heaven. Because of the history surrounding the imitation of the design and French symbolism, it can be inferred that this statue stands for victory, liberty, and possibly religious faith as well.

Happy Veterans Day Everyone.

Wilderstein Historic Site
11/10/2020

Wilderstein Historic Site

This 1910 oil on canvas of Wilderstein is attributed to Ida V. Loundsbery. In its original carved and giltwood frame, this lovely painting is one of the many pieces of fine art within the mansion.

You can also find this painting and others on Wilderstein's Digital Catalog online at https://wilderstein.pastperfectonline.com/

On November 8, 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected to the office of President of the United States of America fo...
11/08/2020

On November 8, 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected to the office of President of the United States of America for the first time. He would win the office three more times before dying in office in 1945. Within that role, he led the country through two of its more difficult times in the Great Depression and the Second World War.

He was born in Hyde Park, NY in 1882 to the wealthy and well-connected Roosevelt family. It was the relationship to his fifth cousin Theodore that inspired much of his political thinking. His education began with home school but progressed to Harvard where he met another of his cousins, Eleanor, whom he was soon to marry. Together they formed a political partnership that propelled him to State Senator, Undersecretary of the Navy, Vice Presidential candidate of Al Smith in 1920 to Governor of New York State before finally becoming the U.S. President.

The first term in office was critical. The country was gripped by the Great Depression and he brought much needed optimism and energy to the task. His New Deal policies radically altered the relationship of the government to the governed. Examples of which were making banking answerable to the state with oversight, opening up soft alcohol for purchase, trying to bring tight regulation of other industries with price controls as well as spending on infrastructure to put people to work. Some of these worked, some didn’t but the key was he kept trying new ideas and using his radio broadcasts, the Fireside Chats, to sell them to the people.

This first term accomplished so much that most Presidents are judged by the accomplishments of FDR from his first 100 days in office. That is a tough bar to set for any modern President.

Further Reading:
https://www.whitehouse.gov/about-the-white-house/presidents/franklin-d-roosevelt/

Image: FDR in 1932. Photograph by Elias Goldensky. U.S. Library of Congress.

West Point Museum
11/08/2020

West Point Museum

Huge “Thank you” to our friends at NY State who created and installed our new signage on NYS Highway 9W!!!

The large format signs are at both the Route 218 exit (West Point Highway) and Stoney Lonesome exit which are the best access points for the Museum.

During COVID-19, please contact the Museum to check on the admission status. We are complying with DOD and NYS on access policy.

Stay safe, see you soon!!!

West Point Garrison and Community, West Point Department of History, U.S. Army Center of Military History, Dean of the Academic Board-West Point, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command

Beginning this weekend you can join acclaimed artist and Hudson River Valley Review author James McElhinney for virtual ...
11/06/2020

Beginning this weekend you can join acclaimed artist and Hudson River Valley Review author James McElhinney for virtual drawing workshops at Olana, Frederic Church's estate on the Hudson River. Then plan on reading his article in our upcoming Spring '21 issue of the Review!

Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site
11/05/2020

Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site

#ElectionDay2020

On November 5, 1951, Philipsburg Manor was designated a National Historic Landmark. Located in Westchester Co., NY it wa...
11/05/2020

On November 5, 1951, Philipsburg Manor was designated a National Historic Landmark. Located in Westchester Co., NY it was founded by Frederick Philipse and his partners as part of the Dutch Patroonship owned by Adrien van der Donck. At its peak in 1680, the manor stretched from the Croton River in the North, southward to the Spuyten Duvil Creek on the modern border of the Bronx. Essentially, it covered roughly 52,000 acres of land.

The manor was existent through the transition from Dutch to English colony. During the American Revolution it was owned by the Loyalist Frederick Philipse III and confiscated to raise money for the Patriot war effort. Parcels were auctioned off with the Upper Mills being purchased by Gerard Beekman and the lower to Cornelius Low among others.

The manor itself was constructed primarily by slaves as the family wealth was based around the Atlantic Slave Trade. In addition, the land also held many tenant farmers who owed rent and privilege to the lord of the manor. Those tenant farmers came from several places in Europe including Great Britain, France, the Netherlands and Germany, it’s also reasonable to assume that there was a significant number of Wiechquaeskeck and Sinsink Natives still in the area. So with the initial population at the founding of approx. 200 people, it would have had a significant diversity of people participating in making the manor run.

Later on, the land passed through several hands and with differing interest in the state of the original buildings. However, in 1951 it was acquired by Sleepy Hollow Restorations (Historic Hudson Valley) and with the help of John D. Rockefeller Jr. saw major restoration. Currently it’s a wonderful history tourist attraction with interactive lesson plans for field trips.

Further Reading: https://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/philipsburg-manor

Image: Philipsburg Manor, Sleepy Hollow, New York, 2005

On November 3, 1948, The Chicago Tribune mistakenly declared New York Governor Thomas Dewey the winner of his presidenti...
11/03/2020

On November 3, 1948, The Chicago Tribune mistakenly declared New York Governor Thomas Dewey the winner of his presidential race with incumbent Harry S. Truman with the famous headline, “Dewey Beats Truman”. It wasn’t until the following day that the mistake was realized and Truman remained as President and is often considered to have been a really good one.

Dewey, however, was an interesting character in his own right and served New York quite well over his three terms in office. As District Attorney of NYC in the 30s and 40s he went after organized crime and brought down Charles "Lucky" Luciano and came close to getting Dutch Schultz before he was murdered.

He had a reputation as a New York Republican which simply meant moderate and pro-business in his positions. He supported infrastructure but only with a “pay as you go” methodology. In other words, pay for what you build without borrowing against the future. As such he secured the funding for the New York State Thruway and State University of New York while also raising the wages of state workers.

After his bid for the Presidency failed, Dewey moved into running the Republican Party machine. In particular he was instrumental in the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower and filling his cabinet with guys close to the party. Additionally, he supported the run of Nelson Rockefeller in all four of his runs for the New York State Governor.

Further reading: Milton Klein. The Empire State: A History of New York. 2005.
This book covers Dewey extensively.

Image: Reelected President Truman holds up the erroneous Chicago Daily Tribune headline on November 3, 1948, the day after the election. Picture by Byron Rollins

Dewey on the campaign trail in Bakersfield, California, September 1948. Photo by Frank E. Moore

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3399 North Rd
Poughkeepsie, NY
12601

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"In Defiance" tomorrow, a presentation with Susan Stessin-Cohn and discussion with Albert B. Cook Register here: docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSeedsq93kowqeSM85HrHC9iXseuurouu5ko5jLEwFOVK_uxIA/viewform https://www.facebook.com/events/1659145600923870
Twenty-first Century high resolution digital scanning unlocks the amazing detail captured in 19th and early 20th Century glass negatives. Stop by the Dutchess County Historical Society’s open house to explore these images from Poughkeepsie’s past. Look in store windows, at the expressions on people’s faces, examine the clothing and architectural detail. Sunday, November 3, 1:00-3:00pm at the Clinton House. 549 Main Street.
Your online guide to the Hudson Valley!
A step back in the advances we were making in the development of a Hudson valley tourist industry focused on this region's archeology and history. More history is about to be lost due to land changes made without appropriate oversight. The Colden Mansion site is an important historical site recognized by the State. This property was owned by last provincial governor of NY, Cadwallader Colden, and his descendants, including one future governors of NY of the same family. This site is now being damaged and it's historical artifacts destroyed slowly and repeatedly (twice in the past six weeks), by the town's maintenance crew. The Town and State office in charge of overseeing the management of these sites are now passing time with their legal disputes. The Town continues to ignore the suggestion that an archeological re-assessment of this site be made. The saddest part here, is the town's behaviors are primarily personality- and party-driven, and not at all focused on public interest. https://www.facebook.com/ColdenPreservation/posts/709690142564081