Hudson River Valley Institute

Hudson River Valley Institute The Hudson River Valley Institute at Marist College is the academic arm of the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area. Follow us on Twitter! @HRVInstitute

The Hudson River Valley is one of 49 Congressionally designated National Heritage Areas in the United States. As one of the most important regions in the United States, it is the fountainhead of a truly American identity. Recognizing the area's national value, Congress formed the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area in 1996 to recognize, to preserve, to protect, and to interpret the national

The Hudson River Valley is one of 49 Congressionally designated National Heritage Areas in the United States. As one of the most important regions in the United States, it is the fountainhead of a truly American identity. Recognizing the area's national value, Congress formed the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area in 1996 to recognize, to preserve, to protect, and to interpret the national

Operating as usual

On October 30 1941 President Roosevelt approved $1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations. Effectively it suppl...
10/30/2021

On October 30 1941 President Roosevelt approved $1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations. Effectively it supplied the United Kingdom (and British Commonwealth), Free France, the Republic of China, and later the Soviet Union and other Allied nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945. This included warships and warplanes, along with other weaponry. In general the aid was free, although some hardware (such as ships) were returned after the war. In return, the U.S. was given leases on army and naval bases in Allied territory during the war. A total of $50.1 billion (equivalent to $697 billion today) worth of supplies was shipped, or 17% of the total war expenditures of the U.S. This also clearly ended American neutrality.

Image: President Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease bill to give aid to Britain and China (March 1941).

On October 30 1941 President Roosevelt approved $1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations. Effectively it supplied the United Kingdom (and British Commonwealth), Free France, the Republic of China, and later the Soviet Union and other Allied nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945. This included warships and warplanes, along with other weaponry. In general the aid was free, although some hardware (such as ships) were returned after the war. In return, the U.S. was given leases on army and naval bases in Allied territory during the war. A total of $50.1 billion (equivalent to $697 billion today) worth of supplies was shipped, or 17% of the total war expenditures of the U.S. This also clearly ended American neutrality.

Image: President Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease bill to give aid to Britain and China (March 1941).

On October 29, 1929, the New York Stock Exchange crashed in what will be called the Crash of '29 or "Black Tuesday", end...
10/29/2021

On October 29, 1929, the New York Stock Exchange crashed in what will be called the Crash of '29 or "Black Tuesday", ending the Great Bull Market of the 1920s and beginning the Great Depression. There were many signs of things to come such as declines in consumer goods and steel manufacturing, the drying up of foreign markets as inflation hit there as well as demographic shifts and challenges from the environmental disaster of the dust bowl. Yet the Roarin' 20s had been such a rich time that common folks as well as the wealthy went in for massive investment speculation on the stock market. There were a couple of heavy sell offs before the 29th but capital groups came in to make public demonstrations of buying stocks to help dissuade fears of a down turn. The market would continue a downward trend until the following March afterwards a slow recovery followed. Yet for most Americans, this began the economic disaster of the Great Depression where in America unemployment left 25% of the workforce without a job and with few social safety nets to mitigate the trouble this brought on.
Image: Crowd gathering on Wall Street after the 1929 crash

On October 29, 1929, the New York Stock Exchange crashed in what will be called the Crash of '29 or "Black Tuesday", ending the Great Bull Market of the 1920s and beginning the Great Depression. There were many signs of things to come such as declines in consumer goods and steel manufacturing, the drying up of foreign markets as inflation hit there as well as demographic shifts and challenges from the environmental disaster of the dust bowl. Yet the Roarin' 20s had been such a rich time that common folks as well as the wealthy went in for massive investment speculation on the stock market. There were a couple of heavy sell offs before the 29th but capital groups came in to make public demonstrations of buying stocks to help dissuade fears of a down turn. The market would continue a downward trend until the following March afterwards a slow recovery followed. Yet for most Americans, this began the economic disaster of the Great Depression where in America unemployment left 25% of the workforce without a job and with few social safety nets to mitigate the trouble this brought on.
Image: Crowd gathering on Wall Street after the 1929 crash

10/28/2021

Crumwold Mansion, Hyde Park, Dutchess County NY c1908-1954.

Designed by Richard Morris Hunt, Crumwold Manor was constructed in 1889 for Archibald Rogers and his wife Anne Coleman. Archibald would remark about the mansion, "Just a big house. It was built with a view for a bit of elbow room". That elbow room included 1,200 acres, a large coach house for 60 working and racing horses, multiple greenhouses full of fruit trees and rare flowers, 30 acre polo grounds, boat house with multiple ice yachts, many working barns and servants homes.

The property employed over 70 people to run the estate. Even though the Roosevelt's estate "Springwood" and the Vanderbilt Mansion down the road had similar sized staff, the Rogers enjoyed the reputation of being the best of those families to work for.

Archibald would die in a car crash on the property in 1927 attempting to stop his dog from jumping out of their car to chase a squirrel. His wife Anne passed in 1934. It was then passed to their youngest daughter Anne who only lived in the house for an additional two months before her husband, Senator Griswold Webb would die as well. It was then left empty with only a skeleton staff to preform upkeep on the estate. It was offered to the Duke and Dutchess of Windor after King Edward's abdication, but the couple choose to live in France instead.

After many years being vacant, 900 acres were sold off to a developer to build 500 homes that are now part of Crumwold Acres. The house itself was sold to the Catholic Church and became the Eymard Seminary High School in 1951. Today, the house and 69 remaining acres of the property are owned by Millennial Kingdom Family Church. I believe the property is now vacant and in need of repair. A facebook group called, "Bring Crumwold Hall Back to Hyde Park" is trying raise awareness about the home.

Above information and further reading can be found at this website: https://househistree.com/houses/crumwold-hall
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On October 28, 1776, British troops attacked and captured Chatterton Hill from the Continental Army in the Battle of Whi...
10/28/2021

On October 28, 1776, British troops attacked and captured Chatterton Hill from the Continental Army in the Battle of White Plains. Washington had just fled New York City heading northward into the southern Hudson River Valley when he got word that British General William Howe made a landing nearby. Knowing this, Washington retreated further north to the Village of White Plains in Westchester County.

Taking the defensive position on high ground at Chatterton Hill, Washington had his men build a series of entrenchments protected by swamps on his right flank but taking care to give a line of retreat in the rear. The battle took several days to unfold as the British slowly advanced to Washington’s position.

The battle began with a series of quick attempts by the British to take the hill that were unsuccessful. However, their artillery began to shake the confidence and the Patriot militia units. The turning point came when the Patriot right flank was exposed by a British charge. Soon the Patriots were in full, but disciplined retreat.

The battle resulted in casualty rates of approx. 200 men for each side and was enough to discourage Howe from immediate pursuit of Washington’s men. Washington would soon cross the Hudson River at Peekskill and make his way into Pennsylvania.

Further Reading
Sean Vitti. The Battle of White Plains. https://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/.../100f823b-189f-4717...
American Battlefield Trust. https://www.battlefields.org/.../rev.../battles/white-plains
Image: Battle of White Plains, from painting by George Albert Harker. Westchester Co. Historical Society

On October 28, 1776, British troops attacked and captured Chatterton Hill from the Continental Army in the Battle of White Plains. Washington had just fled New York City heading northward into the southern Hudson River Valley when he got word that British General William Howe made a landing nearby. Knowing this, Washington retreated further north to the Village of White Plains in Westchester County.

Taking the defensive position on high ground at Chatterton Hill, Washington had his men build a series of entrenchments protected by swamps on his right flank but taking care to give a line of retreat in the rear. The battle took several days to unfold as the British slowly advanced to Washington’s position.

The battle began with a series of quick attempts by the British to take the hill that were unsuccessful. However, their artillery began to shake the confidence and the Patriot militia units. The turning point came when the Patriot right flank was exposed by a British charge. Soon the Patriots were in full, but disciplined retreat.

The battle resulted in casualty rates of approx. 200 men for each side and was enough to discourage Howe from immediate pursuit of Washington’s men. Washington would soon cross the Hudson River at Peekskill and make his way into Pennsylvania.

Further Reading
Sean Vitti. The Battle of White Plains. https://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/.../100f823b-189f-4717...
American Battlefield Trust. https://www.battlefields.org/.../rev.../battles/white-plains
Image: Battle of White Plains, from painting by George Albert Harker. Westchester Co. Historical Society

Dutch Reformed Church, Fishkill Village, NY (photo taken 1913)This church, built 1731, was a meeting place for several i...
10/27/2021

Dutch Reformed Church, Fishkill Village, NY (photo taken 1913)

This church, built 1731, was a meeting place for several important political gatherings, as Fishkill was the state capitol for a brief time. The church is still standing today. New York State Archives

Dutch Reformed Church, Fishkill Village, NY (photo taken 1913)

This church, built 1731, was a meeting place for several important political gatherings, as Fishkill was the state capitol for a brief time. The church is still standing today. New York State Archives

On October 27, 1787, the first of 85 Federalist Papers authored by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay were p...
10/27/2021

On October 27, 1787, the first of 85 Federalist Papers authored by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay were published in the New York papers, the Independent Journal and New York Packet. Essentially, the 85 articles and essay make the case for a stronger federal government than the Articles of Confederation created and pushed for the ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
With constituents being sent from the states to the Federal Convention in September of 1787, talks that had originally been understood to refine the Articles of Confederation, turned into a debate aimed at replacing it. Supporters of the standing government published a series of articles of support to which Hamilton chose to challenge with the Federalist Papers.
Article 1 written by Hamilton makes the case clearly makes the case for the ratification of a new Constitution with:

“It has been frequently remarked, that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and force.”

These would ultimately frame and influence how the U.S. Constitution functions.

Further Reading:
For a scanned copy of the Federalist Papers see https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbc0001.2014jeff21562v1/?sp=11

On October 27, 1787, the first of 85 Federalist Papers authored by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay were published in the New York papers, the Independent Journal and New York Packet. Essentially, the 85 articles and essay make the case for a stronger federal government than the Articles of Confederation created and pushed for the ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
With constituents being sent from the states to the Federal Convention in September of 1787, talks that had originally been understood to refine the Articles of Confederation, turned into a debate aimed at replacing it. Supporters of the standing government published a series of articles of support to which Hamilton chose to challenge with the Federalist Papers.
Article 1 written by Hamilton makes the case clearly makes the case for the ratification of a new Constitution with:

“It has been frequently remarked, that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and force.”

These would ultimately frame and influence how the U.S. Constitution functions.

Further Reading:
For a scanned copy of the Federalist Papers see https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbc0001.2014jeff21562v1/?sp=11

Princess Beatrice at the Albany Armory, Albany New York (photo taken 1959)Princess Beatrice of the Netherlands is shown ...
10/26/2021

Princess Beatrice at the Albany Armory, Albany New York (photo taken 1959)

Princess Beatrice of the Netherlands is shown sitting next to Governor Nelson Rockerfeller. She was visiting New York to celebrate the achievements of Henry Hudson and Samuel Champlain. (New York State Archives)

Princess Beatrice at the Albany Armory, Albany New York (photo taken 1959)

Princess Beatrice of the Netherlands is shown sitting next to Governor Nelson Rockerfeller. She was visiting New York to celebrate the achievements of Henry Hudson and Samuel Champlain. (New York State Archives)

Why the Headless Horseman Lives On - Scenic Hudson
10/26/2021
Why the Headless Horseman Lives On - Scenic Hudson

Why the Headless Horseman Lives On - Scenic Hudson

This year marks the 201th anniversary of “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow,” which appeared in Washington Irving’s The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. in 1820. Many literary authorities consider it our nation’s oldest ghost story. For sure, it’s a Halloween staple. But out of all the sp...

On October 26, 1825, the Erie Canal opened for use connecting the Great Lakes and Chicago to the Hudson River and New Yo...
10/26/2021

On October 26, 1825, the Erie Canal opened for use connecting the Great Lakes and Chicago to the Hudson River and New York City. Originally, it ran 363 miles (584 km) from Albany to Buffalo, NY and was the second largest canal in the world upon its completion.

It was the grand idea of Gov. DeWitt Clinton. His opponents expressed an extraordinary amount of disbelief that such a canal was possible let alone financially viable. They called it the “Governor’s Gulch,” “DeWitt’s Ditch” and “Clinton’s Folly.” However, by 1817 he was able to secure $7 million for the construction.

Teams of Irish laborers working for $10 a month and barrels of whisky had to clear such obstacles as the 600 ft. rise in elevation between the Hudson and Lake Erie, often through limestone and mountains. Additionally the workers had to face dangerous marshes and battles with malaria which were rumor, but subsequently challenged, to have cost as many as a thousand lives.

It was a smashing success. Within a year it was already turning a profit and would set off a canal building craze throughout the country. DeWitt celebrated the opening on this day by traveling its length aboard a ship called the Seneca Chief and ceremoniously pouring a barrel of Lake Erie water into New York harbor.

Further Reading:
Paul Contarino. The Erie Canal. https://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/.../71931335-97cd-45f6...
Image: Clinton mingling the waters of Lake Erie and the Atlantic, 1826. New York Public Library

On October 26, 1825, the Erie Canal opened for use connecting the Great Lakes and Chicago to the Hudson River and New York City. Originally, it ran 363 miles (584 km) from Albany to Buffalo, NY and was the second largest canal in the world upon its completion.

It was the grand idea of Gov. DeWitt Clinton. His opponents expressed an extraordinary amount of disbelief that such a canal was possible let alone financially viable. They called it the “Governor’s Gulch,” “DeWitt’s Ditch” and “Clinton’s Folly.” However, by 1817 he was able to secure $7 million for the construction.

Teams of Irish laborers working for $10 a month and barrels of whisky had to clear such obstacles as the 600 ft. rise in elevation between the Hudson and Lake Erie, often through limestone and mountains. Additionally the workers had to face dangerous marshes and battles with malaria which were rumor, but subsequently challenged, to have cost as many as a thousand lives.

It was a smashing success. Within a year it was already turning a profit and would set off a canal building craze throughout the country. DeWitt celebrated the opening on this day by traveling its length aboard a ship called the Seneca Chief and ceremoniously pouring a barrel of Lake Erie water into New York harbor.

Further Reading:
Paul Contarino. The Erie Canal. https://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/.../71931335-97cd-45f6...
Image: Clinton mingling the waters of Lake Erie and the Atlantic, 1826. New York Public Library

Kaaterskill Falls, Catskills Mountains, New York (photo taken circa 1880-1910)This waterfall is one of the numerous wate...
10/25/2021

Kaaterskill Falls, Catskills Mountains, New York (photo taken circa 1880-1910)

This waterfall is one of the numerous waterfalls that are in the Hudson River Valley. Haines Falls, Elfin Glen, and Fawn’s Leap are just a handful of other waterfalls in the area. New York State Archives

Kaaterskill Falls, Catskills Mountains, New York (photo taken circa 1880-1910)

This waterfall is one of the numerous waterfalls that are in the Hudson River Valley. Haines Falls, Elfin Glen, and Fawn’s Leap are just a handful of other waterfalls in the area. New York State Archives

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"In Defiance" tomorrow, a presentation with Susan Stessin-Cohn and discussion with Albert B. Cook Register here: docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSeedsq93kowqeSM85HrHC9iXseuurouu5ko5jLEwFOVK_uxIA/viewform https://www.facebook.com/events/1659145600923870
Twenty-first Century high resolution digital scanning unlocks the amazing detail captured in 19th and early 20th Century glass negatives. Stop by the Dutchess County Historical Society’s open house to explore these images from Poughkeepsie’s past. Look in store windows, at the expressions on people’s faces, examine the clothing and architectural detail. Sunday, November 3, 1:00-3:00pm at the Clinton House. 549 Main Street.
Your online guide to the Hudson Valley!
A step back in the advances we were making in the development of a Hudson valley tourist industry focused on this region's archeology and history. More history is about to be lost due to land changes made without appropriate oversight. The Colden Mansion site is an important historical site recognized by the State. This property was owned by last provincial governor of NY, Cadwallader Colden, and his descendants, including one future governors of NY of the same family. This site is now being damaged and it's historical artifacts destroyed slowly and repeatedly (twice in the past six weeks), by the town's maintenance crew. The Town and State office in charge of overseeing the management of these sites are now passing time with their legal disputes. The Town continues to ignore the suggestion that an archeological re-assessment of this site be made. The saddest part here, is the town's behaviors are primarily personality- and party-driven, and not at all focused on public interest. https://www.facebook.com/ColdenPreservation/posts/709690142564081