Chapters in History

Chapters in History is a woman owned business by a local researcher and historian. Services include help with historical research, living history impressions of famous historical women, networking within the historical community, guest speaking, and education. Chapters in History is in the process of expanding its services to include historic cultural and current cultural study to better understand the world we live in today.

I meant to post this yesterday on the official anniversary, however, before I knew it the day was through.  Yesterday ma...
01/18/2019

I meant to post this yesterday on the official anniversary, however, before I knew it the day was through. Yesterday marked the anniversary of adopting an amendment of prohibition in the United States. Only hours after Boston experienced it’s disastrous Molasses flood, Nebraska became the 36th state to ratify the proposed 18th amendment to the United States Constitution, officially plunging the nation into the famous era of prohibition from alcohol. While Boston’s molasses was largely intended for munitions, part of it was also used for the making of rum- a major Boston based product. Perhaps the flood was portending the direction in which the nation was headed?

Ever wonder where the origin of the phrase “As slow as molasses in January” came from?... well we found out on January 1...
01/16/2019
Without Warning, Molasses Surged Over Boston 100 Years Ago This Week

Ever wonder where the origin of the phrase “As slow as molasses in January” came from?... well we found out on January 15, 1919.

As the city was planning its heroes' welcome for sons returning from World War I, a frightful flood devastated a vast area of the North End

Recently, I was given the task of writing a label for two beautiful, large, brass, plates of The Declaration of Independ...
10/20/2017

Recently, I was given the task of writing a label for two beautiful, large, brass, plates of The Declaration of Independence and a resolution from the first congressional meeting after the ratification of our new Constitution. It was the duty of this first congress to pass any legislation needed to allow the new government system to be successfully implemented. The Confederation Congress, under The Articles of Confederation, chose to hand over their power to the new Constitutional Congress on March 4, 1789, when they would meet for the first time at Federal Hall in New York City. One of the tasks on the minds of those at this session would have been how to better the Constitution and to “amend it” in a way that the government could not overreach its power over the rights of the people. This first congressional meeting is known today as the most important in American History.

�The resolution from March 4, 1789, which is depicted on the brass plate, shows the legislative branch already hard at work on their first day proposing articles that they hoped might be added as amendments to the new government system. Such possible amendments included:
�1.There shall be one representative for every thirty thousand until the number of representatives reached 100, after which Congress would regulate the proportion.
�2. There will be no laws changing the compensation for Senators or Representatives until an intervening election of Representatives.
�3. Congress will make no law regarding the establishment of religion, or abridging free speech or the freedom of the press, the right to peaceful assembly, or the right to petition the government
�4.That as a well regulated Militia is necessary for the security of a free state, the right to bear arms would not be infringed.
�5. That no soldier in time of peace would be quartered in anyone’s house without consent of the owner, or in times of war except in a manner prescribed by the law.
�6. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures and without probable cause.
�7. A person will not be put on trial twice for the same crime, nor will they be forced to act as witness against themselves, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor will private property be taken away for public use without just compensation.
�8. The right of accused in criminal cases to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the state and jurisdiction in which the crime was committed.
�9. In suits of common law, in controversies where the value may exceed $20, the right of trial by jury is preserved.
�10. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, or cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.�
11. The enumeration of certain rights in the Constitution shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
�12. Powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited to the states by it, are reserved to the states respectively or the people.
�It is interesting, in reading this list, to see the beginning of our modern day Bill of Rights starting to form. What similarities or differences do YOU see to our current day Bill of Rights in these 12 proposed amendments? Which ones made it to the final Bill of Rights? And which ones were dropped?

Only a couple more hours to buy some shirts and help the US Virgin Islands.  Please consider sharing!#usvi #vistrong #ca...
10/06/2017
Chapters in History

Only a couple more hours to buy some shirts and help the US Virgin Islands. Please consider sharing!

#usvi #vistrong #caribbeanstrong #hurricanemaria #hurricaneirma #relief #donate

Hello all! I would like to put forward this fundraiser helping our territories of the US Virgin Islands. They were hit by both Cat 5 Irma and Maria Hurricanes. They were very successful in their first fundraiser but need to reach a goal of 50 sales on this tank top by the end of today. All profits benefit Hurricane relief on the Islands. Please consider your help and purchase to be providing well needed goods to those in most need. If you cannot contribute financially please share share share as best you can in case you have friends who would like to. This is the fundraiser's last day. Thank you in advance for your support of our friends and fellow Americans in USVI!

#USVI #vistrong #hurricanemaria #hurricaneirma #caribbeanstrong #donate #relief #helpourislands

Hello all!  I would like to put forward this fundraiser helping our territories of the US Virgin Islands.   They were hi...
10/05/2017
Click here to support Virgin Islands Worldwide Non-Profit Organization for Caribbean Hurricane Relief

Hello all! I would like to put forward this fundraiser helping our territories of the US Virgin Islands. They were hit by both Cat 5 Irma and Maria Hurricanes. They were very successful in their first fundraiser but need to reach a goal of 50 sales on this tank top by the end of today. All profits benefit Hurricane relief on the Islands. Please consider your help and purchase to be providing well needed goods to those in most need. If you cannot contribute financially please share share share as best you can in case you have friends who would like to. This is the fundraiser's last day. Thank you in advance for your support of our friends and fellow Americans in USVI!

#USVI #vistrong #hurricanemaria #hurricaneirma #caribbeanstrong #donate #relief #helpourislands

Buy a shirt to help our cause today!!

The Chariot at the Festival of Chariots (Ratha Yatra) last week on the way to Boston Common. On the chariot are three st...
07/18/2017

The Chariot at the Festival of Chariots (Ratha Yatra) last week on the way to Boston Common. On the chariot are three statues of Lord Hare Krishna on the way to see his relatives as the people pull his chariot along the way.

Some photographs from the Festival of Chariots (Ratha Yatra) which I attended last week.  Thank you to ISKCON-Boston for...
07/18/2017

Some photographs from the Festival of Chariots (Ratha Yatra) which I attended last week. Thank you to ISKCON-Boston for having me at such a wonderful celebration.

Congratulations to the Rebecca Nurse Homestead! What a wonderful accomplishment!
07/15/2017

Congratulations to the Rebecca Nurse Homestead! What a wonderful accomplishment!

BIG NEWS!!! After the hard work of one of our staff Dan Gagnon, we were able to receive this proclamation from the office of the Governor Charlie Baker, naming July 19 2017 as "Rebecca Nurse Day" in Massachusetts. Many thanks to Dan and all those who helped to make this possible! Here is a peak at the proclamation that we will read aloud at our Rebecca Nurse Commemoration Ceremony on July 19th. #RebeccaNurseDay #CommonwealthOfMassachusetts #SalemWitchTrials

Timeline Photos
07/14/2017

Timeline Photos

On the night of the sinking, the water was approximately 28 degrees Fahrenheit.  Those who landed in the water were ther...
04/15/2017

On the night of the sinking, the water was approximately 28 degrees Fahrenheit. Those who landed in the water were therefore just as apt to be killed by hypothermia and exposure as they were to drowning. In fact, later, when ships were sent to the wreckage site to recover bodies, the doctors examining the bodies found that most of them had indeed died of exposure, finding only a few who had any indication of water in the lungs. Second Officer Charles Lightoller, who fell in the water when Titanic sank, would later go on to testify that it felt like "a thousand knives had stabbed him." That line sound familiar? 😉

#Titanic

Titanic Myth:  Only women and children were allowed on the life boatsReality: It depended on a number of variables.  The...
04/15/2017

Titanic Myth:

Only women and children were allowed on the life boats

Reality:

It depended on a number of variables. The official orders were more of a suggestion to PRIORITIZE the women and children first but in order to fill the lifeboats, sometimes if no more women and children were in the area, the officers would fill the remaining space with any men in the area. Also each lifeboat needed experienced seamen who could steer the tiny boats (so they wouldn't drift away from the others or so they could row away from the ship's suction, row to any ship arriving to help, etc) so often times the officers would ask the crowd if any of the men had experience at sea, if so they would be placed on the lifeboat as well. It also depended on the officer. While many officers generally would prioritize women and children and fill the rest of the boats with men, there was one officer who took the orders of women and children first quite literally. Second Officer Lightoller was the one who took his orders so literally he extended them to mean women and children ONLY and therefore would not allow men at all. Still, most of those saved from Titanic would result to be women and children, but it does mean there were more men saved than we would generally think.

"Iceberg right ahead!" Was the warning that Frederick Fleet called down from the crow's nest to the bridge on the fatefu...
04/15/2017

"Iceberg right ahead!" Was the warning that Frederick Fleet called down from the crow's nest to the bridge on the fateful night. First officer William Murdoch ordered a "hard astarboard" (right) in order to port (take a left) around the berg but he also ordered a slowing of the engines. Had speed been maintained the ship may have been able to miss the berg. As it was, Titanic's 78 foot tall rudder was not able to steer the ship in time and she narrowly shaved the iceberg at approximately 11:40-11:45pm April 14th. Instead of a big gash in the ship as was initially believed in 1912, the iceberg made a series of little holes. No one would believe that what was supposed to be an unsinkable ship, was actually taken down by a series of little slivers.

Below (in order) is a picture of a man standing by Titanic's 78 foot rudder as she was being built, the iceberg that it is believed Titanic hit. Evidence included matching color paint on the berg, a diagram of the ship trying to port around the berg, and a picture of the rupture.

Note: It might seem strange to turn starboard (right) in order to port (turn left) as were the orders to avoid the iceberg that night but sailers have a saying that goes "tiller towards trouble" the tiller moves opposite the rudder and therefore even though you are moving the tiller toward what you wish to avoid, the rudder will move you opposite from it.

#titanic

Dogs of the Titanic! There were 12 confirmed dogs on the Titanic, and though only 30 percent of the human passengers sur...
04/15/2017

Dogs of the Titanic! There were 12 confirmed dogs on the Titanic, and though only 30 percent of the human passengers survived, 3 dogs would survive the tragedy as well. These 3 survivors were small toy dogs that could have been carried into the lifeboats like accessories, and may have even been so small they went unnoticed! Dogs were owned and brought on board by the first class passengers, but were not allowed in the cabins with their families. Instead, they would have been kept in the ship’s kennel and taken care of by crew members. The dogs ranged from all shapes and sizes: from Great Danes to French Bulldogs, Pekinese and Pomeranians.

Most passengers regarded their dogs as material items, even having insurance on them in case of loss or damage. One woman, however, visited her dog every day in the kennel, and when the ship went down, she tried to get him into a life boat. Since it was a Great Dane, they told her the dog was too big. She chose to go down with the ship…and the dog.

Below we see pictures of some of the dogs associated with the Titanic. The first a picture of three dogs tied to the railing. This picture, as well as one other of the crew walking the dogs on the deck, are the only two surviving pictures of the interior of the Titanic. They were taken by a photographer who disembarked the Titanic at one of her stops in Queenstown, Ireland, before she embarked on the rest of her fateful journey.

The next picture is of the Captain E.J. Smith with a Large Russian Wolfhound, which had been brought on board by Benjamin Guggenheim as a gift to the captain’s daughter. Captain Smith would have this picture taken aboard the Titanic, named the dog Ben after Mr. Guggenheim, and then would have the dog taken to his daughter the next morning, before the ship went underway.

The last two pictures are of French Bulldogs. The one on the left is a picture of the one French Bulldog passenger on the ship: Gamin de Pycombe. Gamin was brought on board by a 27 year old banker at the time and sadly did not survive. Gamin was the first pied champion in both the Uk and the US. At the time of the sinking, he was heard whimpering in his master’s cabin, and a woman went in to calm him. There are some reports later that people had seen a Frenchie swimming in the ocean. Someone had let Gamin out of his master’s cabin.

The last picture on the right is of the French Bulldog National Specialty, held in New York on April 20, 1912. One of the judges, a Mr. Goldenberg had been on the Titanic at the time of the sinking, only 5 days before, and had boarded the Titanic in Cherbourg with the intention of making the dog show in New York. He was on the list of the dead, but showed up to the show very much alive!

For more information see: http://frenchbulldogclub.org/about/our-clubs-history/frenchies-and-the-titanic

#titanic

Major André and the Plot to Capture West Point
10/03/2016

Major André and the Plot to Capture West Point

Hello everyone! We would like to announce that we have officially opened an instagram account following the adventures of our very own Minnie Major John André. If you would like to follow Little John André's adventures revisiting old sites from his past please come follow our instagram at:

http://instagram.com/adventures_of_mini_john_andre

10 Native Inventions and Innovations That Changed the World
07/01/2016
10 Native Inventions and Innovations That Changed the World

10 Native Inventions and Innovations That Changed the World

Soon after the arrival of Columbus, detailed descriptions of the inventions of Indigenous Peoples began to make their way back to Europe. Not satisfied that “savages” would be able to generate such innovation, rumors began to spread that the Americas were simply a lost colony of Christians or Israel…

The Entire Revolutionary War Animated Map
03/18/2016
The Entire Revolutionary War Animated Map

The Entire Revolutionary War Animated Map

In April, Campaign 1776 will premiere “The American Revolution,” a multimedia experience that takes viewers through the entire struggle for American independence, from beginning to end. You will be able to immerse yourself in the dramatic events that led to our nation’s founding, with animated battl…

The Royal Governors of Massachusetts Bay Colony 1692-1780
09/29/2015

The Royal Governors of Massachusetts Bay Colony 1692-1780

Returning from Fort Ticonderoga, while passing through Massachusetts I came to realize and appreciate just how many towns in Massachusetts are actually named after the former colony's royal governors- including some of the more infamous ones! I stopped and ate dinner in Bernardston, named after Governor Francis Bernard and passed through Winchendon which was named after Nether Winchendon (Governor Bernard's English estate). This made me think of how parts of Cambridge had originally been gifted to Pownall and the area that he owned was called Pownallborough until he gifted it to Harvard before his death. In addition, the town of Stoughton is named for William Stoughton who was acting governor after the Salem Witch Trials and Chief Justice of the court of Oyer and Terminer. A lot of these towns had connections to the French and Indian Wars or King Phillip's War as well! In Bernardston, for example is a bridge called French King Bridge. Apparently so named because of the close proximity of the French King Rock which was named by a French officer during the French and Indian Wars while Bernardston itself was a settlement town created for the families of the men who fought in King Phillip's War. It is fun what one can learn about history simply from a town's name!

Picture: Nether Winchendon.

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