Next in your medical museum at home is citrus fruit. During the era of exploration and commerce by sailing ship, many sailors suffered from scurvy, a disease characterized by deteriorating gums and poor wound healing that could be fatal. Scottish surgeon James Lind knew that some people believed that fresh produce, particularly citrus, could prevent or cure scurvy, and in 1747 he decided to test it for himself. He divided twelve sailors with scurvy into pairs and gave each pair the same diet with a different supplement -- some got vinegar, some seawater, but a lucky pair received oranges and lemons. As we now know, citrus fruits are high in vitamin C, and scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency. Both sailors saw the benefits, while the others in the experiment stayed sick. What’s notable about this very small-scale experiment is that it is widely considered the first controlled clinical trial on record.